Bio 1510-3 - Bio 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Bio Fall 2008...

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Bio – 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Bio – 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Fall 2008 Fall 2008 Dr. Rasheeda Zafar Chapter # 3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life 1
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Biological Molecules Biological Molecules Biological molecules consist primarily of carbon bonded to carbon, or carbon bonded to other molecules. Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds. Carbon may be bonded to functional groups with specific properties. Hydroxyl (OH) – alcohols and sugars Carbonyl (CO) - sugars and nucleic acid Amino (NH) – proteins and nucleic acids Carboxyl (COOH) – proteins and lipids 2
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Tab. 2.1 Biological Molecules Biological Molecules Isomers  are molecules      with the same chemical formula. Structural isomers glucose, fructose Stereoisomers Chiral molecules - mirror- images of each other. D form – sugars L forms – amino acids 3
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Types of Biological Molecules Types of Biological Molecules Macromolecules Carbohydrates Nucleic acids Proteins Lipids 4
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Macromolecules Macromolecules 5   Monomer single subunit Polymer  -  many units  
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Macromolecules Macromolecules 6 Dehydration Synthesis Monomers join to form polymers polymers H and OH released to form water Hydrolysis   Polymers are broken down to monomers H and OH are added
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Macromolecules Macromolecules Carbohydrates are molecules with 1:2:1 ratio of C, H and O 2 n 7
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Monosaccharides Monosaccharides 8 Glucose molecule can exist as α or β
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Monosaccharide Monosaccharide 9 Glucose A monosaccharide – single sugar Contains 6 carbons Very important in energy storage Fructose is a structural isomer of glucose Galactose is a stereoisomer of glucose
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Bio 1510-3 - Bio 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Bio Fall 2008...

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