Bio 1510 - 15 - Bio 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Fall 2008...

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1 Bio – 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Bio – 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Fall 2008 Fall 2008 Dr. Rasheeda Zafar Chapter # 15 Genes Genes & How They Work & How They Work
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Nature Of Genes Studies of human disease Archibald Garrod studied alkaptonuria, alkaptonuria, 1902 Disease is inherited via a recessive allele Garrod proposed that patients with the disease lacked a particular enzyme Connected genes to enzymes genes to enzymes 2
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Nature Of Genes George Beadle and Edward Tatum,1941 Studied Neurospora crassa Used X-rays to damage the DNA in cells of Neurospora Looked for cells with a new (mutant) phenotype caused by the damaged DNA Looked for cells lacking specific enzymes Enzymes required for biochemical pathway for producing AA arginine Identified mutants deficient in each enzyme of the pathway. 3
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Nature Of Genes Beadle and Tatum proposed Each enzyme of the arginine pathway was encoded by a separate separate gene gene Proposed The one gene – one one gene – one enzyme hypothesis. enzyme hypothesis. The one gene – one one gene – one polypeptide hypothesis polypeptide hypothesis 4
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5 Nature Of Genes Nature Of Genes Central dogma of molecular biology DNA RNA protein Transcription is the flow of information from DNA to RNA Translation is the flow of information from RNA to protein
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6 The Genetic Code The Genetic Code Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner determined that the DNA is read in sets of 3 nucleotides for each amino acid Codon Codon Set of 3 nucleotides that specify an amino acids Reading frame Reading frame Series of nucleotides read in sets of 3 One reading frame correct for encoding correct amino acid sequence
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8 The Genetic Code The Genetic Code Marshall Nirenberg identified the codons that specify each amino acid 64 possible codons Start codon The codon (AUG) used to signify the start of translation Stop codons 3 codons (UUA, UGA, UAG) in the genetic code used to terminate translation Remainder of code is degenerate degenerate Some amino acids specified by more Some amino acids specified by more than one codon than one codon
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9 Gene Expression Overview Gene Expression Overview Central dogma of molecular biology DNA RNA protein Template strand Template strand Strand of the DNA double helix used to make RNA Coding strand Coding strand Strand of DNA that is complementary to the template strand RNA polymerase RNA polymerase The enzyme that synthesizes RNA from the DNA template
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10 Gene Expression Overview Gene Expression Overview Translation Initiation
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2009 for the course BIO 1510 taught by Professor Rodriguez during the Spring '08 term at Wayne State University.

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Bio 1510 - 15 - Bio 1510 Basic Life Mechanisms Fall 2008...

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