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Unformatted text preview: Regulating the Internet: WWW: Wild Wild West
Prof. Dianne Martin CS 175 Issues to Consider
How the Internet Evolved s Lessig’s Four Regulatory Mechanisms s Role of W3C s Role of ICANN and domain names s Can the Internet be regulated?
s How the Internet Evolved:
s What it is: a distributed, interoperable network of multiple format data interconnections, including WWW ® 1969 ARPANET project DoD ® Reliable digital communications network that could withstand nuclear attack due to redundant paths ® Originally only “hard core” computer scientists and government research labs ® 197585 BitNet universities established a network supported by cooperating members who provided nodes to support email. How the Internet Evolved (continued)
s s s s s s s 1970’s UseNet free nets, nonprofits 1980’s ARPANET divided into ARPANET and Milnet ® NSF provided NSFNET to link them Internet ® 1983 500 computers were connected to Internet 1990’s NSFfunded backbone, noncommercial 1990’s commercial ISP’sCompuServe, MCI 1995 Tim BernersLee: WWW Since 1995 astronomical growth, commercialization Tangle of information browsers, search engines, etc. Explosion of the WWW
senate hearings Unsafe at any speed?? senate hearings IHPEG W3C DSig PICS TRUSTe P3P 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Internet Stakeholders
(Richard Spinello, CyberEthics, 2000)
Media Govt’s Corporations (.com’s) Individuals Advocates Interest groups Internet Regulatory bodies ISP’s SW/IT vendors Non-profits (.org’s) Law of Code -Lessig
s Laws s Norms policies, ethics codes s Market Forces practices s “Code” protocols, standards, actual controls Applied to the Internet? Internet “Governance”
Direct State Intervention existing or new laws of nations can govern the Internet s Coordinated International Intervention a new intergovernmental organization s Selfgovernance the Internet will develop its own semiofficial political structure charters developed by nonprofits to represent the stakeholders
s Can It Really Be “Governed?”
s s s s s s Jurisdictional problems global, borderless “Virtually” untamable Immune from centralized control Immortally flexible will work around a damaged node Interprets censorship as damage and routes around it Power struggle between frustrated states and newly empowered virtual community. World Wide Web Consortium
s s s The W3C is an international consortium founded in 1994 where Member organizations, a fulltime staff, and the public work together to develop Web standards. W3C's mission is to lead the WWW to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long term growth for the Web. W3C primarily pursues its mission through the creation of Web standards and guidelines. In its first ten years, W3C published more than eighty such standards and guidelines. W3C Founding Principles
s s Technology can be used to provide safe access to the internet Technology can be used to protect users from unreliable, unwanted, offensive or illegal information as well as from hackers, viruses, unwanted intrusion, invasion of privacy, and electronic fraud. W3C sets up working groups to establish to accomplish the above. s technical standards and data exchange protocols to be used by others to develop systems Focus on Open Access
s s In order for the Web to reach its full potential, the most fundamental Web technologies must be compatible with one another and allow any hardware and software used to access the Web to work together. W3C refers to this goal as “Web interoperability.” By publishing open (nonproprietary) standards for Web languages and protocols, W3C seeks to avoid market fragmentation and thus Web fragmentation. Examples of W3C Standards
PNG: Portable Network Graphics s CSS: Cascading Style Sheets s PICS: Platform for Internet Content Selection s P3P: Platform for Privacy Preferences s DSig – Digital Signatures/ ECommerce s HTTP / HTML s XML – metatagging, encryption s Intellectual Property Rights Management s WAI: Web Accessibility Initiative s New: Mobile Web Initiative
s ICANN / DNS
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
s s s s Technical coordination body for the Internet Established in 1998; assumed responsibilities performed by US govt. (NSF) Coordinates assignment of globally unique identifiers: ® Internet domain names org, edu, com, net ® IP address numbers ® Protocol parameters, port numbers Preserves operational stability of the Internet What is ICANN?
s An internationally organized, nonprofit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) TopLevel Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. These services were originally performed under U.S. Government contract by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and other entities. ICANN now performs the IANA function. ICANN Mission As a privatepublic partnership, ICANN is dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and to developing policy appropriate to its mission through bottomup, consensusbased processes. ICANN Responsibilities
ICANN is responsible for coordinating the management of the technical elements of the DNS to ensure universal resolvability so that all users of the Internet can find all valid addresses. s It does this by overseeing the distribution of unique technical identifiers used in the Internet's operations, and delegation of global Top-Level Domain (gTLD’s) names.
s Domain Name Dispute Resolution
The Uniform Domain-Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) has been adopted by ICANNaccredited registrars in all gTLDs (.aero, .biz, .com, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .net, .org, .pro). Dispute proceedings arising from alleged abusive registrations of domain names (for example, cybersquatting) may be initiated by a holder of trademark rights. The UDRP is a policy between a registrar and its customer and is included in registration agreements for all ICANN-accredited registrars ICANN Core Values
Openness and broad participation s Transparency of operation s Consensus based s Main weakness isolated from real world institutions governments whose backing and support are necessary for legitimacy and funding.
s ICANN Controversy
s Who made them the boss? consensusbased means ® US govt and broad industry coalition ® Develop policy through private sector, bottomup, De Facto government of the Internet s Uniform dispute resolution (court) s No coercive, legislative or enforcement power
s Acknowledged Problems
Very difficult to take on entire responsibility of DNS management s Ineffective, slow to react to problems s Bogged down with processes s Understaffed, underfunded s Low confidence level s Purely private sector body impractical
s What ICANN Can do
Provide effective and efficient management of the DNS s Abstain from actions that interfere with innovation and creativity or stifle development of new technology s ICANN mission is stewardship and operational stability, not preservation of status quo!
s What ICANN Can’t Do
Innovate new institutions of global democracy s Achieve mathematically equal representation of all affected individuals s Regulate content s Solve the Digital Divide s Embody some idealized process s Diverted ICANN from core mission
s An Open Question- How much should (can) the Internet be regulated? Two examples: W3C, ICANN s Operational stability s Access s Legal protection of trade, property, personal safety, privacy, transactions s Dispute resolution s Content control
s Constitution for the Internet?
s Who are the “citizens”? s Balance of Power s Equal Protection s Taxation? s Jurisdiction? s Limitation of Powers The Power of Code
“Lex Informatica” the regulatory impact of information technology s Technical standards can exert subtle control s Technology can be used to enforce law – sometimes go beyond the law s Laws can actually be more transparent and democratic
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2009 for the course CS 175 taught by Professor C.martin during the Fall '09 term at GWU.
- Fall '09