Chapter 12 - PSYC 3305-W02: Lifespan Development Study...

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PSYC 3305-W02: Lifespan Development Study Guide Chapter Twelve I. Building on Theory (pp. 307–314) 1. According to Piaget, between ages 7 and 11 children are in the stage of concrete operational thought. Although more recent research indicates that some logical thought appears before middle childhood, Piaget revealed that school-age children can use mental categories flexibly, inductively, and simultaneously. 2. The child’s ability to classify objects into categories according to some common property improves steadily during middle childhood. 3. One logical principle understood by schoolchildren is identity, the idea that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even when other characteristics are changed. Another is reversibility, the
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principle that a transformation can be restored to its original state by undoing it. 4. Vygotsky agreed with Piaget’s attention to the actual thinking of the child, but, unlike Piaget, regarded peers and teachers as crucial to cognitive development. Vygotsky’s emphasis on the socio-cultural context contrasts with Piaget’s more maturational approach. 5. Research shows that the same patterns of children’s cognition are apparent worldwide. Children’s understanding of classification, for example, is influenced not only by age (Piaget) but also by factors related to social interaction (Vygotsky). 6. According to information-processing theory, incoming stimuli are held for a split second in the sensory memory (also called the sensory register), after which most of it is lost or discarded. Meaningful material is
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transferred into working memory (previously called short-term memory). This part of memory handles mental activity that is current and conscious. Long-term memory stores information for days, months, or years. 7. Storage of information and retrieval from
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Chapter 12 - PSYC 3305-W02: Lifespan Development Study...

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