Chapter 13 - PSYC 3305-W02: Lifespan Development Study...

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PSYC 3305-W02: Lifespan Development Study Guide Chapter Thirteen I. The Peer Group (pp. 333–342) 1. School-age children differ from young children in their tendency to compare themselves with other people, called social comparison. 2. Children learn lessons from peers that adults cannot teach. The culture of children includes the rules and rituals that children understand and pass down from older children to younger children. 3. Although adults don’t always approve of peer influence, children choose peers who are compatible. The culture of children does not necessarily mirror the values of adults, and its values differ by culture. It may even include deviancy training, in which children learn from peers how to avoid adult restrictions. 4. Kohlberg studied moral reasoning by telling hypothetical stories that pose ethical dilemmas to children, adolescents, and adults. In examining the
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responses to these dilemmas, he found three levels of moral reasoning, with two stages at each level. I. Preconventional: Emphasis on getting rewards and avoiding punishments. Stage One: “Might makes right.” Stage Two: “Look out for number one.” II. Conventional: Emphasis on social rules. Stage Three: “Good girl” and “nice boy.” Stage Four: “Law and order.” III. Postconventional: Emphasis on moral principles. Stage Five: Social contract. Stage Six: Universal ethical principles. 5. Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for failing to take into account each culture’s distinctive morals and values and for ignoring gender differences in moral reasoning. Kohlberg also did not seem to recognize the shift from adult to peer values. 6. Some children are simply neglected, not really rejected. Children who are actively rejected—who are
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unpopular most of the time—can be classified as either aggressive rejected or withdrawn-rejected.
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Chapter 13 - PSYC 3305-W02: Lifespan Development Study...

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