BCH-11 Integration of Metabolism

BCH-11 Integration of Metabolism - Integration of...

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Integration of Metabolism: Cellular Signaling – To prevent overproduction of molecules in the metabolic pathways, regulatory enzymes that act by feedback inhibition control the creation of new molecules. Hormones can send signals to speed up reactions when the body is under stress. The body is under even greater stress when it is attacked by infectious disease. Citric Acid Cycle plays a central role in metabolism. There are three main points: (1) catabolism of nutrients [carbohydrates, lipids and proteins]; (2) anabolism of molecules [sugars, lipids and amino acids; (3) the relationship between individual metabolic pathways and the cycle.
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The molecules that we process by catabolic reactions come from outside the body because we are heterotrophic organisms. Required Nutrients – In the U.S. most diets supply enough calories and fat that essential fatty acids are not a problem. Is there enough protein to supply essential amino acids? There is no storage for protein – excess protein consumed will be turned into carbohydrate or fat, and nitrogen will be eliminated via the urea cycle. Essential amino acids must be consumed daily, helped by a balanced diet. Protein is constantly being degraded, so must be continually synthesized.
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Micronutrients – (vitamins and minerals) Vitamins must be obtained from diet. Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in adipose tissue and can be toxic. Water-soluble vitamins are less of a problem for toxicity. Minerals – Macrominerals are: sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorous and calcium. Calcium deficiency can lead to bone fragility, a problem especially for elderly women. Deficiencies in microminerals is not common, except for iodine, iodized table salt has basically eliminated this problem. The Food Pyramid – This was an attempt to help people to develop healthy eating habits. Newer recommendations pay more attention to increasing the amount of fiber and decreasing fat consumption.
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foods good and others bad. Modern thought is that refined carbohydrates should be limited, as should red meat. All fats are not bad, unsaturated fats are better for you. The level and type of fat in your diet can affect your LDL/HDL ratio in a negative manner. The more modern view of the food pyramid mphasizes exercise and weight control. Whole grain emphasizes exercise and weight control. Whole grain foods and plant oils, vegetables and fruits are promoted; while dairy, starches, butter and red meat are to be used sparingly. Fish, poultry and eggs are to be limited. Obesity –
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BCH-11 Integration of Metabolism - Integration of...

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