BCH-6 Lipids

BCH-6 Lipids - Lipids Lipids s Marginally soluble in water...

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Unformatted text preview: Lipids Lipids s Marginally soluble in water, but readily Marginally soluble in water, but readily soluble in organic solvents like chloroform, soluble in organic solvents like chloroform, alkanes and acetone alkanes and acetone s Fats and oils are typical lipids; fats are Fats and oils are typical lipids; fats are solid at room temperature and oils are solid at room temperature and oils are liquid at room temperature. liquid at room temperature. s There are open There are open-chain compounds with chain compounds with polar head groups and long non polar head groups and long non-polar polar tails, including fatty acids and a number of tails, including fatty acids and a number of other compounds. other compounds. There are also fused-ring compounds, the steroids. Fatty Acids - they are amphipathic molecules (a polar [hydrophilic] carboxyl head with a non-polar [hydrophobic] ydrocarbon tail. hydrocarbon tail. Carbon length usually even-numbered Unsaturated vs. Saturated cis configuration: trans (increased LDL) 18:0 = saturated 18 carbons 6:1 = one double bond 16 carbons Glycerol- is a three carbon polyalcohol that serves as the backbone for many lipids. Triacylglycerol is a glycerol backbone with three fatty acids esterified to the alcohol. the body uses it as an energy storage molecule in adipose tissue. Triacylglycerols can be hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids by lipases or saponified by sodium or potassium hydroxide to yield glycerol and soaps. Phosphoacylglycerols (Phospholipids) - One alcohol of glycerol is phosphorylated, the other two are esterified to fatty acids making phosphatidic acid. Important groups of phosphatidyl compounds: phosphatidyl ethanolamine (cephalin), phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl choline (lecithin), phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl glycerol, and diphosphatidyl glycerol (cardiolipin). Amino alcohol may be esterified to the phosphate group Phosphoacylglycerols are important compounds in biological membranes. Ether Glycerophospholipids Contain an ether linkage instead of an acyl group at the C-1 position of the glycerol. Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is one of the most versatile biochemical molecules found in mammals. The acyl group at C-2 is an acetate making the compound much more water-soluble, allowing PAF to function as a soluble messenger in signal transduction. Waxes - C omplex mixtures of esters of long chain fatty acids and long chain alcohols. They serve as protective coatings for plants and animals. Carnauba wax is used to polish floors and automobiles and spermaceti is used in cosmetics. Sphingolipids - C ontain a long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine. Found in plants and animals, especially nervous tissues Sphingomyelin is important, it has a fatty acid esterified to the amino group and a Phosphoryl choline attached to the terminal alcohol. Glycolipids - C arbohydrate is bound to an alcohol group of a lipid by a glycosidic linkage. Ceramides are frequently the parent compounds, when a sugar molecule is...
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2009 for the course BCH 311 taught by Professor Howlett during the Fall '08 term at Rhode Island.

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BCH-6 Lipids - Lipids Lipids s Marginally soluble in water...

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