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BCH-1 Bioenergetics

BCH-1 Bioenergetics - Bioenergetics Bioenergetics Life Life...

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Bioenergetics square6 Life processes require that molecules that are taken in as nutrients are broken down to extract energy and to create building blocks for creation of new molecules. A constant supply of energy is needed by cells to square6 remain alive. Catabolism is a series of small steps where electron electron donors donors transfer energy to electron acceptors . The principal electron carrier is NADH and ATP is the main storage form for energy released from a substrate molecule.
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The standard states for free-energy changes - we define the standard conditions for any process and use those standard conditions as the basis for comparing reactions. They are said to be at “ unit activity” . For pure solids and pure liquids, it is the pure substance itself; for gasses it is taken as 1 atmosphere for that gas; and for solutes the standard state is 1 Molar concentration Δ G is the free energy change for the reaction under any conditions to the free energy compared to the free energy change under standard conditions ( Δ G o ). Δ G = Δ G o + RT ln [C] c [D] d [A] a [B] b
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When the reaction is at equilibrium Δ G = 0 thus 0 = Δ G o + RT ln [C] c [D] d or [A] a [B] b Δ G o = - RT ln [C] c [D] d [A] a [B] b and Δ G o = - RT ln K eq where K eq is the equilibrium constant for the reaction A modified standard state for biochemical applications is at a pH around 7 making the real solute concentration 10 -7 M and this is designated Δ G o ' The reaction of ATP to ADP and P i run at pH 7 and 25C or 298K
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