100609-BCH311 - Nobel Prize for Medicine 2009 BCH311 Part...

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Nobel Prize for Medicine 2009
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Fig. 10-1, p.241 BCH311 Part II - Crick’s Central Dogma DNA is copied by a process called DNA replication RNA is synthesized from DNA by a process called transcription RNA can be reverse-transcribed into DNA in reverse transcription Proteins are synthesized from RNA by a process called translation
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DNA: The Human Genome facts 1. The human genome is the complete list of coded instructions to make a person 2. The DNA alphabet comprises four letters A, C, G, and T 3. These four letters carry the instructions for all living organisms 4. There are 3 billion (3,000,000,000 bp) letters in every one of our cells - and all 3 billion have now been sequenced because of the Human Genome Project 5. Approximately 30,000 genes are encoded by our DNA 1. Roundworm has ~20,000 genes 2. Yeast has ~6,000 genes 3. E. coli has ~4,000 genes 6. It is estimated that approximately 95% of our DNA is ‘junk’ or non-coding 7. If you were to stretch out the DNA of a cell (which is only 10 μ M) it would measure 6 feet in length 8. Between humans our DNA only differs by 0.2% 9. Our DNA is 98% identical to that of chimpanzees 10. It is estimated that approximately 50% of our genome consists of transposable (mobile) elements
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What is a gene? Definition of a gene from the National Human Genome Research Institute The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein. Definition of a gene from the U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Project National Human Genome Research Institute The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position on a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional product (i.e., a protein or RNA molecule).
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Nucleic Acids The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides i. nitrogenous base ii. a sugar iii. a phosphoric acid residue A nucleoside is a compound that consists of a covalently-linked sugar and base (differs from a nucleotide by lacking a phosphate group) Nucleic acid bases (or nucleobases) are one- or two-ring nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds Pyrimidines (one-ring) - cytosine, thymine, uracil Purines (two-ring) - adenine, guanine
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Fig. 9-1, p.216 Nucleic Acid Bases 2-oxy-4-amino pyrimidine 2,4-dioxy pyrimidine 6-aminopurine
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Fig. 9-1, p.216 Nucleic Acid Bases 5-methyl-2,4-dioxy pyrimidine 2-amino-6-oxy purine
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Fig. 9-2, p.216 Structures of less common nucleobases
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Fig. 9-3, p.217 Nucleosides (base plus sugar) In the case of RNA the sugar is β - D -ribose For DNA the sugar is β - D -deoxy ribose Sugar is linked to the base via an N-glycosidic bond The C atoms of the sugar are prime numbered, e.g. 1’, 2’, etc C-1’ carbon of the sugar linked to N-1 nitrogen of pyrimidines or the N-9 nitrogen of purines β - D -ribose (RNA) β - D -deoxy ribose (DNA)
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Fig. 9-4a, p.218 Nucleotides (base plus sugar plus phosphate) A nucleotide is named for the parent nucleoside, plus the suffix mono-, di-, or tri-phosphate
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