study guide exam 1

study guide exam 1 - Brittany Holt Geol 1001 Fall 2009...

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Brittany Holt Geol 1001 – Fall 2009 Chapter 1 Scientific Method o Goal: explain the way the universe works o 1) observation and experimentation o 2) development of hypothesis o 3) testing and experimentation to eliminate or revise hypotheses o 4) scientific theory Uniformitarianism o Developed by James Hutton, says that geologic processes have worked today like they did in the past. Ex. Uplift, erosion, transport, deposition, solidification Earth’s shape and surface o Earth’s radius is 6370 Km and it is 4.55 billion years old, bulges at the equator, squashed at the poles o Geodesy – study of earth’s shape and surface o Topography – ranges over 20km from highest to lowest o Layers Core, mantle, crust Core – densest of all, inner core is solid iron, outer core is liquid iron. The inner core is a metallic sphere suspended within the liquid outer core. (iron) Mantle – made of silicate rich rocks (oxygen, magnesium, and silicon)
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Crust – oxygen and silicon Mohorovicic discontinuity – boundary between crust, composed of low- density silicates, and mantle, made of higher density silicates Rocks in oceanic crust contain more iron and are therefore denser than continental rocks Densities Seismic waves o Compressional – expand and compress as they travel through solid, liquid, or gas o Shear – side to side motion, only go through solids, they could travel through mantle and crust Cyroshpere – polar ice caps, glaciers, other ice and snow Lithosphere – strong, rocky outer shell of solid earth that comprises the crust and outer most mantle down to an average depth of 100km. forms the tectonic plates. Not a continuous shell, broken into 12 plates. Asthenosphere – weak ductile later of mantle beneath the lithosphere that deforms to accommodate the horizontal and vertical motions of plate tectonics Systems – specialized systems that describe types of terrestrial behavior o Climate – cyrosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere. This system is driven by energy from the sun o Tectonic – lithosphere, deep mantle, asthenosphere. This system, as well as the geodynamo system is driven by the energy from the Earth’s internal heat o Geodynamo – outer and inner cores - The 3 rd global geosystem involves interactions that produce a magnetic field deep inside the earth, in its fluid outer core. This magnetic field shields the biosphere from the sun’s harmful radiation. When rocks form, they become slightly magnetized by this field. Rapid convection motions in the liquid, iron outer core produces electric currents which create a geodynamo (a dynamo is an engine that produces electricity by rotating a coil of conducting wire through a magnetic field) with a strong magnet field. So the earth makes energy using convection powered by the core’s internal heat.
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o Magnetic reversals – sporadic magnetization reversals at irregular intervals, they are very useful because of their imprint on the geologic record to help
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study guide exam 1 - Brittany Holt Geol 1001 Fall 2009...

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