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Unformatted text preview: UIUC Physics 427 Midterm Part A (Closed Book) Solutions Philip Powell October 27, 2008 1. Problem 1 An extensive variable is a variable that depends on the quantity of material in the system (e.g. energy, mass, entropy). An intensive variable is a variable that is independent of the quantity of material (e.g. temperature, pressure). (See K&K pg. 264). 2. Problem 2 The second law of thermodynamics states that if a closed system is in a configuration that is not the equilibrium configuration, the most probable consequence will be that the entropy of the system will increase monotonically in successive instants of time. Roughly speaking, this means that entropy tends to increase. Note that this does not mean that entropy always increases, or that it cannot decrease. The second law is only a statement about the most probable outcome. (See K&K pg. 49). 3. Problem 3 The fundamental assumption of thermal physics is that a closed system is equally likely to be in any of the quantum states accessible to it. (See K&K pg. 29).of the quantum states accessible to it....
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