091508 - concentrated form y Concentrated – relatively...

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TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Zumdahl Chapter 4
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Why solutions y Reactions between ions occur rapidly y All life depends on water y The majority of reactions occur in water
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Definitions y Solvent – the thing doing the dissolving, retains its state y Solute – the thing being dissolved, becomes part of the solvent y Hydrophilic – attracted to water y Hydrophobic – repelled by water
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Definitions y Solubility – the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of solvent at a given temperature y Electrolyte – a material that dissolves in water to give an electrical current y Dilution – adding more solvent to decrease the concentration of a solute in a solution
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Definitions y Polar Molecule – a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment y Salt – an ionic compound y Acid – a proton (H + ) donor y Base – a hydroxide or a proton acceptor
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Water
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What happens when we put a salt in water? NaCl dissolving in water
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Electrolyte Behavior
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Electrolyte Behavior
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Definitions y Stock – routinely used solutions prepared in
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Unformatted text preview: concentrated form y Concentrated – relatively large ratio of solute to solvent y Dilute – relatively small ratio of solute to solvent y Saturated – no more solute will dissolve Molarity of Solution y Molarity is the number of moles of solute present per liter of solution Molarity y Determine the molarity of a solution where 45.5 mg of NaCl is dissolved in 154.4 mL of solution. y How many moles of Cl-ion are contained in 114 mL of a 1.85 M CaCl 2 solution? What is the concentration of sulfide ions in 1.0 L of a 0.5 M cobalt (III) sulfide? 0.5 M 1 . M 1.5 0.25 M 25% 11% 51% 13% 1. 0.5 M 2. 1.0 M 3. 1.5 M 4. 0.25 M Molarity y How many grams of NaNO 3 are needed to prepare 400.0 mL of a 1.1 M solution? Dilution M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 Dilution y If 3.5 L of a 4.8 M strontium chloride solution is diluted to 45 L, what is the molarity of the new solution? y To what volume should you dilute 50 mL of a 12 M stock nitric acid solution to obtain a 0.100 M solution?...
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091508 - concentrated form y Concentrated – relatively...

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