102408 - Periodicity Elements with the same valence...

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Periodicity y Elements with the same valence electrons will have similar properties y Properties of atoms that can be measured: { Ionization Energy- the energy required to remove an electron (making a cation) { Electron Affinity- the energy released when an electron is attached to an atom (making an anion) { Atomic Radii- half the distance etween the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms
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Ionization Energy y Can only lose one electron at a time
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Factors Affecting Ionization Energy y Atomic Radius – smaller atoms hang on to valence electrons more tightly y Charge – the higher the positive charge, the harder it is to pull electrons away y Orbital Penetration – it is easier to remove electrons from p orbitals than from s orbitals y Electron Pairing – it is easier to remove paired electrons than unpaired electrons
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Ionization of Valence and Core Electrons
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102408 - Periodicity Elements with the same valence...

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