111408 - Zumdahl Chapter 10 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS...

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LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Zumdahl Chapter 10
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Intermolecular Forces y Rationale – formation of liquids and solids indicates the presence of intermolecular forces
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States of Matter
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Intermolecular Forces y Dipole-dipole – 1 to 5 kJ/mol, attraction of partial positive charge to partial negative charge in polar molecules + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl + - H Cl
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Intermolecular Forces
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Intermolecular Forces
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Intermolecular Forces y Hydrogen Bonds – ~10 kJ/mol; partial bonding of H with N, O or F. Attracted to the lone pairs on the highly electronegative atoms. H-F H-F H-F H-F O H H O H H O H H F H H H H O H
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Intermolecular Forces
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Intermolecular Forces y Dispersive Forces –instantaneous dipole formed by temporary induced fields due to fluctuations in charge distributions <1 kJ/mol y Polarizability – ability of a substance to distort its charge distribution to induce a dipole moment when placed in an electric field
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Intermolecular Forces
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111408 - Zumdahl Chapter 10 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS...

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