CNS-Sensory - CNS-Sensory Section D Structure of the...

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CNS-Sensory Section D: Structure of the Nervous System: Pathway- a group of axons traveling together in the CNS. o Long pathway- neurons with long axons carry information down long distances, allowing for fewer opportunities for alteration in the information they transmit. Ganglia- groups of neurons in the PNS, also nuclei in the CNS. Forebrain Composed of two hemispheres, each with outer shell of gray matter and an inner shell of white matter (synapses). Also consists of cerebral cortex. Two hemispheres connected at the corpus callosum . Folding creates gyri (ridges) , and grooves (sulci) . Cerebral cortex is the place where most of the info in the nervous system is integrated. o Nerve fibres enter cortex via diencephalon . Diencephalon : composed of the thalamus and nhypothalamus. o These coordinate homeostatic regulation via the pituitary gland . Cerebellum : Coordinates movement and posture and balance. Brain Stem: Relays all the information b/w the brain and the spinal chord. Consists of a reticular formation , which receives and integrates input from all the body. Release neurotransmitters that affect all levels of the nervous system. Pathways that leave the RF to the brain stimulate arousal and wakefulness, and attention. Fibers that descend from the RF influence activity in neurons. Chapter 6 (Section D only, skip Autonomic Nervous System) and Chapter 7 (all)
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CNS-Sensory Central nervous System: Spinal Cord : Butterfly-shaped composed of grey matter projecting towards the back (dorsal horns) or the front ( ventral horns) of the body. Neurons entering the PNS attach to the spinal chord via dorsal roots . These neurons have ganglias on the dorsal root. Neurons leaving the PNS attach to the ventral roots . Together dorsal and ventral roots form a spinal nerve , one on each side of the spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System : 43 pairs of nerves: 12 cranial and 31 connect with the spinal cord. All the spinal nerves contain both afferent and efferent fibers Some cranial nerves (Eg. Optic) contain only afferent fibers. o Afferent carry information into the nervous system. o Efferent carry information out and contains two categories somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. located in groups in the brainstem or the ventral horn of the spinal cord have large-diamter, and myelinated axons without many synapses before reaching the muscle cells. Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier, and Cerebrospinal Fluid: b/w the bone and neural tissues there are three layers called meninges . These meninges protect and circulate cerebrospinal fluid. Meningitis , is an infection of the menings that originates in the CSF, resulting in creased pressure. Also causes seizures and loss of consciousness. CSF
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CNS-Sensory - CNS-Sensory Section D Structure of the...

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