Physiology-1 - Notes from pages 2-11, 24-26, 360-362;...

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Notes from pages 2-11, 24-26, 360-362; 500-501, 593 Physiology-  the study of how living organisms work.   Pathophysiology-  physiology gone wrong. Cells = the simplest structural units in which a complex multi-cellular organism can be divided and still retain the functions characteristic of life. Cell Differentiation- the process of transforming a cell to become specialized. Flow: Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Cells There are four major categories of cells: 1. Muscle - specialised to generate the mechanical forces that produce movement a. Attached through bones or skin b. Surround hollow cavities to pump out something (heart) or in tubes (vessels) 2. Nerve- specialized to conduct electrical signals. a. Stimulates a gland or muscle cell to contract b. Provide means of controlling the activities of other cells. 3. Epithelial-  specialized for the selective secretion and absorption of ions and organic molecules. a. Located mainly in surfaces that cover the body or individual organs. In addition hey line the walls of various tubular and hollow structures. b. Basement membrane - epithelial cells that form boundaries b/w compartments and function as membranes. (Eg. Skin) 4. Connective tissue-  connect and support the structures of the body. a. Fibbers underlying most epithelial layers. ‘ b. Fat storing, bone cells, RBC and WBC. c. Tissues and EM The four major categories of tissues are: Muscle, Nerve Epithelial and Connective respectively. An aggregation of cells or a thick fabric of cells. A specific tissue may contain all 4 classes of tissues. Extracellular Matrix-  a mixture of fluid, protein, and minerals that surrounds a cell or a tissue.   1. Provides a scaffold for cellular attachments 2. Transmits information in the form in the form of chemical messengers
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Notes from pages 2-11, 24-26, 360-362; 500-501, 593 3. matrix consist of fibrous proteins ( collagen fibers and elastin fibers ) and proteins that have no fibers but have complex sugars. These proteins are what make the whole matrix maintain intact. Collagen accounts for 1/3 of all proteins in the body. Proteins with complex sugars  are the link b/w the cell and the messengers molecules b/w cells. Organs and Organ Systems:  Functional units- an organ is composed of many functional units which together act to produce the function of the organ. Ex. Alveoli in the lungs System Major Organs or Tissues Primary Functions Circulatory Heart, blood vessels, blood Transport blood to the body Digestive Mouth, digestive tract Absorption of nutrients and water Endocrine All glands or organs secreting hormones (eg pancreas) Regulation of growth, metabolism, reproduction, blood pressure, etc Immune White blood cells, spleen, thymus Defense against pathogens Integumentary Skin Protection against injury or dehydration Lymphatic Lympth vessels and nodes Collection of ecf in the body Musculoskeletal Cartialge, bone ligaments, etc Suport and protection of body. Movement
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2009 for the course PHGY 209 taught by Professor Wechsler during the Spring '07 term at McGill.

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Physiology-1 - Notes from pages 2-11, 24-26, 360-362;...

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