Neruon - p y ra m id a l c e ll (note: synaptic cleft) a xo...

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Unformatted text preview: p y ra m id a l c e ll (note: synaptic cleft) a xo n (y e llo w = m y e lin b la c k = n o d e s o f ra n v ie r) (w h ite m a tte r ) Expand S yn a ps e H illo c k Soma n u c le u s a x o n c o l la t e r a l s te l la t e c e ll info rma tio n f low Dendri tes (note s pin es) in co m in g s ig n al Next A. Some Properties of neurons • produce electrical potentials across their cell membranes •can transmit electrical pulses quickly • have receptors which convert chemical messages to electrical messages •neurons are differentiated cells •specialized for integration and transmission of information Next Functions of neurons supported by • biophysical properties, including electrical properties and channels • structure, including a neuron’s shape • how neurons are connected Next Anatomy of the Neuron d e n d r i te ( w i t h s pin e s ) Input s t e l la t e c e l l nucleus Soma h illoc k ( in te g r a tiv e ) axon a xo n c o lla te r a l i m p u ls e s ( w h i te m a tte r ) O u tp u t synapse p y ra m id a l cel ( N o te a ls o h a v e a x o a x o n i c , a xo - s o m a t i c s y a n p s e s e tc .) Next Next Next What’s special about neurons Next Anatomy of the Neuron d e n d r i te ( w i t h s pin e s ) Input soma s t e l la t e c e l l nucleus dendrites a xo n c o lla te r a l h illoc k ( in te g r a tiv e ) axon i m p u ls e s ( w h i te m a tte r ) soma synapse O u tp u t Synapse pc ey rl a m i d a l ( N o te a ls o h a v e a x o a x o n i c , a xo - s o m a t i c s y a n p s e s e tc .) Next Anatomy of the Neuron d e n d r i te ( w i t h s pin e s ) Input s t e l la t e c e l l nucleus a xo n c o lla te r a l h illoc k ( in te g r a tiv e ) axon Dendrite i m p u ls e s ( w h i te m a tte r ) O u tp u t synapse p yra m id a l cel ( N o te a ls o h a v e a x o a x o n i c , a xo - s o m a t i c s y a n p s e s e tc .) Next Anatomy of the Neuron d e n d r i te ( w i t h s pin e s ) Input Hillock -usually the spike initiating zone (SIZ) nucleus a xAxon on c ocl ollateral la te r a l h illoc k ( in te g r a tiv e ) axon s t e l la t e c e l l Axon i m p u ls e s ( w h i te m a tte r ) O u tp u t synapse p y ra m id a l cel Bouton ( N o te a ls o h a v e a x o a x o n i c , a xo - s o m a t i c s y a n p s e s e tc .) Next Glial Cells 1) Important helper cells 2) Einstein had lots of glia 3) Mitotic Next Some functions of glial cells 1) Fill space between neurons 2) Provide scaffolding and chemical cues during development 3) Might be involved in controlling what fluids and chemicals get into neurons, particularly in the blood-brain barrier. 4) Involved in extracellular ionic maintenance which is essential for normal neural functioning 5) Aid in repair of neurons and phagocytosis 6) Involved in electrically insulating (myelinating) neurons 7) In some cases restrict spread of neurotransmitter at synapses 8) Might have proteins that can actively remove transmitters from the synaptic cleft Next ...
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