aud_07_reader-1

aud_07_reader-1 - Review voltages and channels because we...

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Needed Physics Concepts Speed of sound – time Æ distance Doppler Shift - bats Physics of sound – mechanical waves Filtering – sound traveling down a tube Graphing sound Time waveform Spectrograph Frequency modulation Frequency bandwidth intensity Fourier Transform Harmonics Shearing Review voltages and channels because we are going to go over complex oscillations due to opening and closing of channels
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Anatomy Divergence Convergence Parallel and hierarchical organization
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Central auditory pathways – structure and anatomy 1) There is massive divergence in the brainstem where the information from the cochlea is spread out over > 12 regions (not all shown). Divergence – 1 Æ many Convergence – many Æ 1 cochlea aud. nerve DCN AVCN PVCN Brain Stem IC MGBv MGBm MGBd A1 midbrain thalamus cortex Other cortex Other cortex 2) Then there is massive convergence onto the inferior colliculus (IC) through which all information must pass. 3) Then in cortex there is parallel and hierarchical connectivity reminiscent of the visual system
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Central auditory pathways – Hair Cells cochlea aud. nerve DCN AVCN PVCN Brain Stem IC MGBv MGBm MGBd A1 midbrain thalamus cortex Other cortex Other cortex H a i r C e l s n d t h c o u m g y to Δ v M
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Main Point To show nomenclature of different parts of hair cell Big Picture: Hair Cells cause auditory transduction
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1) Hair cells are mechanoreceptors which respond to movements of their “hairs”, called stereocilia. 2) They are used in many sensory systems and organs in different animals 3) In the vertebrate cochlea, when sound waves cause fluid in the cochlea to move, the fluid pushes the stereocilia causing them to move which causes a change in the membrane potential Movement in this direction depolarizes the hair cell VG-Ca and Ca gated K+ channels at the base (in contact with perilymph) Note: selective Ca++ channel blockers can block the VG-CA++ channels and therefore Ca++ effects on the Ca++-gated K+ channels Anatomy - Hair Cells VIII nerve to brain ___lymph (normal K + ) In contact with basal part of hair cell ____________ Synaptic vesicles X.A.1 Hair cells X.A.1.a Anatomy _____lymph (high K + ) In contact with apical part of hair cell ________________ Separates fluid between basal (bottom) & apical (top) part of hair cell Non-specific ____________ _________ at stereocilia tips (in contact with endolymph)
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Sensory Transduction “Tip links”, spring-like proteins, directly connect the tip of one stereocilium to the cation channel in the tip of the neighboring stereocilium. Tip link Cation channel Why does movement towards taller cilia cause a depolarization? X.A.1 Hair cells
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2009 for the course NPB 100 taught by Professor Chapman during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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aud_07_reader-1 - Review voltages and channels because we...

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