Clinical2 - Psychological Disorders I. Diagnosis II....

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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Disorders I. Diagnosis II. Anxiety Disorders III. Mood Disorders IV. Schizophrenic Disorders V. Other Disorders What is a Psychological Disorder? A constellation of symptoms that create significant distress or impairment in work, school, family, relationships, or daily living Clinical: “Harmful dysfunction” = atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable. Psychodynamic Perspective Neuroses: issues in living that involve anxiety (phobias) or interpersonal conflict Psychoses: marked disturbances of contact with reality Diagnosing Mental Disorders How do clinicians know who has what? Reliability: individual diagnosticians reach the same conclusions using same system Observable behaviors to maximize reliability Validity: the extent to which the system’s categories are clinically meaningful Predict course of illness and outcome Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) The American Psychiatric Association publishes a diagnostic manual that attempts to classify signs and symptoms into syndromes Signs are observable phenomena Symptoms are reports from patients The current edition is termed the “DSM-IV” Categorizing Disorders Axis I II III IV V Symptoms that cause distress Personality disorders, mental retardation Medical conditions w/ psycho. disorder Psychosocial and environmental problems Global assessment of functioning Axis I : Clinical Disorders Anxiety Disorders P h o b ia s , P a n ic A tta c k s , G e n e r a liz e d A n x ie ty , O b s e s s iv e C o m p u ls iv e D is o r d e r s Mood Disorders M a jo r D e p r e s s iv e , B ip o la r , S e a s o n a l A f f e c tiv e Schizophrenic Disorders Other disorders D i s s o c i a t i v e, S e x u a l , E a t i n g , S o m a t o f o r m , e t c . Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders refer to strong feelings of distress, uneasiness, or apprehension Phobias = irrational fear of object or situation, including social phobias Panic Disorders = intense attacks of anxiety that are not justified by the situation Generalized Anxiety Disorder = chronic, uncontrollable worry not tied to specific. Phobic Disorders Phobia: unreasonable, excessive, or irrational fear C au s e distress or major interference with life Specific Phobias Social Phobia (Davidson, Marshall, Tomarken, & Henriques, 2000). Panic Attack and Panic Disorder I n te n s e , s h o r t- liv e d f e e lin g s o f o v e r w h e lm in g a n x ie ty o r te r r o r I n th e a b s e n c e o f tr u e em erg en cy If freq u en t a n d r e c u r r in g a tta c k s d ia g n o s e d a s p a n ic d is o r d e r Stress and Panic Disorders F ir s t a tta c k c o m e s s o o n a f te r illn e s s , m is c a r r ia g e , tr a u m a . P o s ttr a u m a tic s tr e s s d is o r d e r (P T S D ) E x p e r ie n c e o r w itn e s s e v e n t th a t in v o lv e s s e r io u s in ju r y o r d e a th R e s p o n d w ith f e a r a n d h e lp le s s n e s s P e r s is te n t r e - e x p e r ie n c e o f event H e ig h te n e d p h y s io lo g ic a l aro u sal Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsession: persistent thought can’t be controlled Compulsion: intentional behavior (ritual) - Mind is flooded with persistent and uncontrollable thoughts - Individual is compelled to repeat certain acts - Experience anxiety if unable to complete ritual III. Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder: refers to a long-term episode of intense sadness, loss of appetite, and difficulty in sleeping Bipolar Disorder: involves alternating episodes of mania and depression Seasonal Affective Disorder: noticable Seasonal downturn in mood with poor weather and less sunlight Sadness, withdrawal, anxiety, irritability, thoughts of death, sleeplessness, lack of enjoyment of previously pleasurable things. Intense, chronic, debilitating. Depression Bipolar Disorder Mania: Intense but unfounded elation -hyperactivity, talkativeness, flight of ideas, distractibility, & impractical grandiose plans, delusional levels of optimism, euphoria, & energy Cyclic pattern of manic episodes, normal affect, & extreme depression Suicide Risk T h e m a jo r ity o f s u ic id e v ic tim s a r e s u f f e r in g f r o m d e p r e s s io n 1 0 - 1 4 % o f th o s e w h o a tte m p t s u ic id e w ill e v e n tu a lly s u c c e e d in a la te r a tte m p t Creativity and Mental Illness The rate of mental illness is slightly higher among those successful in the arts than those successful in other professions Seasonal Affective Disorder greater mood fluctuation with the seasons related to amount & intensity of light exposure The Vicious Cycle of Depression D e p r e s s io n c a n le a d to b e h a v io r s th a t c a u s e s o c ia l r e je c tio n , w h ic h w o r s e n s d e p r e s s io n IV. Schizophrenic Disorders Delusions: False beliefs that often acco m p an y schizophrenia. Hallucination: S en s o ry experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation. Schizophrenia P ro fo u n d disturbance: Illogical thought, loosening of associations, delusions, hallucinations “word salad,” disconnected ideas, emotion flat o r a b s en t Systems Perspective T h e s y s te m s p e r s p e c tiv e s e e k s th e r o o ts o f a b n o r m a lity in th e b r o a d s o c ia l c o n te x t E a c h p e r s o n is a m e m b e r o f a s o c ia l g ro u p T h e g ro u p f u n c tio n s a s a s y s te m a n d th e s y s te m p a r ts a r e in te r d e p e n d e n t Biological Perspective The biological perspective seeks the roots of abnormal behavior within the brain Gross pathology of the brain Disturbance of neurotransmitter function Normal brain Schizophrenic brain Diathesis-Stress Models of Schizophrenia High Causation P r e d is p o s in g c a u s e s in p la c e b e f o r e o n s e t m a k e p e r s o n s u s c e p tib le in h e r ite d c h a r a c te r is tic s P r e c ip ita tin g c a u s e s im m e d ia te e v e n ts ( s tr e s s , lo s s ) M a in ta in in g c a u s e s P os. & n eg . consequences k e e p d is o r d e r g o in g Amount of stress Disorder manifested Disorder not manifested Low Low High Predisposition for the disorder Other Psychological Disorders E a tin g S exual S u b s ta n c e a b u s e S o m a to f o r m ( e .g ., H y p o c h o n d r ia , c o n v e r s io n s ) D e v e lo p m e n ta l ( e .g , A u tis m ) A x is I I I : M e d ic a l c o n d itio n s w / p s y c h o lo g ic a l symptoms (Korsakov’s, Alzheimer’s) D is s o c ia tiv e ( A m n e s ia , I d e n tity d is o r d e r ) A x is I I : P e r s o n a l i t y D i s o r d e r s Narcissism Antisocial Borderline Is this man sane? ...
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