Lecture 3-Evolve - Mating Describe your ideal sexual...

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Unformatted text preview: Mating Describe your ideal sexual partner: Mating Describe your ideal reproductive partner: Gender, age, height, weight, looks, religion, ethnicity, nationality, social class, family background, employment prospects, financial status, reproductive status, marital status, etc. Mating B io lo g ic a l Im p e r a tiv e ? In th e a n im a l w o r ld , s o m e s p e c ie s o f a n im a ls , including birds such as swans, once believed m o n o g a m o u s , a r e n o w k n o w n to e n g a g e in e x t r a - p a ir c o p u la t io n s . S o c ia l m o n o g a m y o c c u rs in a b o u t 9 0 p e rc e n t o f a v ia n s p e c ie s a n d a b o u t 3 p e rc e n t o f m a m m a lia n s p e c ie s Attraction = Appearance -Blind dates to college dance rated partner -P h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e w a s o n l y d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r What predicts # of responses from personal ad? Man’s height, woman’s weight Online dating choices -> physical attractiveness Men AND women affected by beauty, men admit! O rg as m % of boys who masturbate: (Data from Ramsey, 1943) Lifetime Sex Sexual Activity (Laumann, et al., 1994) Sexual Activity (Laumann, et al., 1994) Hooking up on Campus more than 60 percent of students reported hooking up a typical hookup more often included "genital touching" than "a meaningful conversation" ”a good hookup" is "When no one finds out about it or talks about it later” “Practice” for later relationships? UM Study - Ward, 2004 Sexual Satisfaction Sublimation Mating Social Motivator? Ideally, how many partners should a woman have over her lifetime? Ideally, how many partners should a man h av e? Number of Partners “Power is the ultimate aphrodisiac.” Henry Kissinger, Nixon’s Secretary of State Selectivity: Women are more selective than Men Can I ask you a question? Clark & Hatfield (1989) Evolutionary Psychology The study of behavior and the mind using the principles of evolutionary theory. Evolution of Humans 150,000 years ago: Homo sapiens 90,000 years on African Savanna 60,000 years ago: Dispersion from Africa 50,000 years as hunter/gatherers Agriculture: 10,000 years ago 9 8 5 0 y ears a s f arm ers Industrial Revolution: 150 years ago Set up a “dating game.” Manipulated physical attractiveness and status of prospective dates. Results: Men attuned to physical, but not status. Women attuned to status, but not physical. (Kenrick, 1992) Classified Advertisements P r e tty la d y w r ite r w h o lo v e s q u ie t ta lk s , s o f t m u s ic , h u g s , a n d te n d e r k is s e s . R o m a n tic to th e h e a r t, th is S W P F , 4 7 , h a s n o b a g g a g e , s e e k s S W P M , N S , 4 7 -6 0 . L ib e r a l, p r o g r e s s iv e , s e c u la r , s p a r ta n S W M , 3 4 , 6 '3 " I S O s tr o n g n a tu r a l F w /o k id s f o r p la y , d a n c e , d is c o v e r y a n d a lf r e s c o f u n . L e t` s g o d u tc h . Buss & Schmitt Evolutionary account of men’s focus on physical beauty Males have no preference for mates… S o m e w in d u p w ith f e r tile m a te s … T h e y b e c o m e a n c e s to r s to f u tu r e g e n e r a tio n s S o m e m e n w ill h a v e p s y c h o lo g ic a l m e c h a n is m s th a t in c lin e th e m to s e e k w o m e n w ith h ig h f e r tility T h e s e m e n w ill b e m o r e lik e ly to p r o c r e a te But there’s no clear indicator of fertility!!! • A ge • Amount of gray hair • Smoothness of skin • Good teeth • Health • Energy level •“Springiness” of gait • Symmetry of features Beauty (Singh, 1993) Biology or Culture? “Pear shape” rules! B o d y w e ig h t is a p o o r p r e d ic to r o f r e p r o d u c tiv e s ta tu s L o w w a is t - t o - h ip r a t io ( W H R ) is b e tte r p r e d ic to r - e a r ly o n s e t o f p u b e r ty , lo w e r r is k s o f d ia b e te s , lo w e r r is k o f o v a r ia n a n d b r e a s t c a n c e r , lo w e r r is k o f h e a r t d is e a s e a n d m o r ta lity . Singh’s Stimuli Results: - WHR had a greater relationship to preferences than did ideal body weight. - Subjects consistently rated low WHR models more attractive, independent of body weight. Singh’s Stimuli The Lab vs. The World Singh examined the ideal weight and Waist to Hip Ratio of Miss America winners and Playboy centerfolds. Singh asked men to rate attractiveness of various women and systematically varied their ideal weight and WHRs. M is s A m e r ic a ( A & B ) P la y b o y c e n te r f o ld s ( C & D ) Sociocultural influences: Children socialized to value mates with high reproductive value. Girls: status of prospective dates. An Evolutionary account of women’s focus on high status Women have no preference for mates… S o m e w in d u p w ith h ig h s ta tu s m a te s G r e a te r s o c ia l s ta tu s , m a te r ia l & n u tr itio n a l b e n e fi ts , lo n g - te r m a c c e s s to r e s o u r c e s in c r e a s e s u r v iv a b ility T h e y b e c o m e a n c e s to r s to f u tu r e g e n e r a tio n s S o m e w o m e n d e v e lo p p s y c h o lo g ic a l m e c h a n is m s th a t in c lin e th e m to s e e k m e n w ith h ig h s ta tu s T h e y w ill b e m o r e lik e ly to h a v e s u c c e s s f u l o f f s p r in g Why is offspring survivability more important to women? • W om en can have a v e r y fi n ite n u m b er. • M en can have an a lm o s t lim itle s s n u m b er. Parental Investment W h e n it c o m e s to r o m a n tic p a r tn e r s : W o m e n s e e m to f o c u s o n s ta tu s Men seem to focus on physical beauty "I continue to stay young, right? I produce children, I stay young," said the 59year-old Trump. The baby is Trump's fifth child and his wife's first. Another Gender Difference: Jealousy M e n w e r e m o r e u p s e t im a g in in g p h y s ic a l r e la tio n s h ip . W o m e n w e r e m o r e u p s e t im a g in in g e m o t io n a l r e la tio n s h ip . Why? Men Can never be sure offspring are theirs. Physical infidelity should be more threatening. Women Problem is commitment Problem Emotional infidelity should be more threatening. Emotional Corroborating Evidence S ex u al P eak : Males: 17 Females: 40 Why? Why not? What is Beauty? Male body shape: Inverted Triangle Bilateral symmetry “Baby faces” -> Unattractive on men, more attractive on women Eye of the Beholder Love & Marriage Conclusions Evolutionary pressures may have selected for specific mate preferences These differ for males and females Nurture (Culture) also influences views of attractiveness through social learning May not agree with, or may be unaware of these influences ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2009 for the course BIO 225 taught by Professor Pavgi during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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