Social4 - Social Psychology Looks at how the real or...

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Unformatted text preview: Social Psychology Looks at how the real or imagined presence of others (a.k.a., the social situation) influences individual behavior. The Bad and the Good Conformity Jonestown Guyana, 1978 Conformity is.... a c h a n g e in b e h a v io r o r b e lie f a s a r e s u lt o f r e a l o r im a g in e d g r o u p p r e s s u r e . A s s u m e s g r o u p w a n ts s o m e th in g d if f e r e n t th a n th e in d iv id u a l. Group Influence Sherif Paradigm Autokinetic Effect--The illusion that a Autokinetic s ta tio n a r y s p o t o f lig h t is m o v in g w h e n v ie w e d in a d ark en ed ro o m . H a v e to e s tim a te h o w m u c h th e lig h t m o v e s N o r e f e r e n c e p o in ts a v a ila b le Sherif and the Autokinetic Effect: Group Norms - Individuals’ estimates of movement ranged from 2 inches to 80 feet! - In groups, norms quickly formed. - Individuals, even a year later, stuck to g ro u p n o rm s . Asch Paradigm: Unambiguous task A Standard Line B C Comparison Lines Choose the line most like the standard line. Which one is the real subject? Asch Paradigm R e s u lts : S u b je c ts c o n f o r m e d 3 7 % o f th e tim e In fl u en ced b y : - s iz e o f g r o u p - m a g ic n u m b e r 3 - a m b ig u ity o f ju d g m e n t - s ta tu s o f g r o u p m e m b e r s - p r e s e n c e o f o th e r d is s e n te r s - in d iv id u a l a n d c u ltu r a l d if f e r e n c e s . Conformity in the Sherif and Asch Paradigms What happens when retested without group? Sherif: Still answer using group norms Asch: Now answer based on own judgment Private acceptance vs. public compliance Sherif Paradigm: Private Acceptance S o c ia l c o m p a r is o n th e o r y : W e w a n t to k n o w if o u r o p in io n s a r e c o r r e c t a n d h o w g o o d o u r a b ilitie s a r e . T o th e e x te n t th a t p h y s ic a l r e a lity is a m b ig u o u s , w e a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n " s o c ia l r e a lity . ” => Compare our performance to others So, Social Comparison theory tells us that So, one power the group has is informational one power. More influential when evaluation is ambiguous or uncertain. This power can lead to conformity and private acceptance. Asch Paradigm: Public Compliance Normative Power is the power that arises Normative because the individual fears punishment from group. Always present in social situations. Decreases with presence of other dissenters. Crowd behavior: Contagion, not conformity Group gives permission to do what you already want to do: looting, rioting, speeding Milgram’s Obedience Studies Today we focus on, “Why did so many people obey?” The Foot-in-door Effect: Compliance breeds compliance "Cold" Request Firs t Si gn Pe t. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % who com Foot-in-Door and Sales Social Conformity How do we get people to conform as we wish? We obey rules even if no one is actually watching Spotlight Effect GILOVICH Bystander Apathy (Latane & Darley 1969) • T h e K itty G e n o v e s e m u r d e r in 1 9 6 4 • 3 8 n e ig h b o r s w a tc h e d & lis te n e d b u t d id n ’ t a c t to h e lp E m e r g e n c ie s W hy? • L if e th r e a te n e d f o r v ic tim & h e lp e r • U n u s u a l e v e n t- - r e a c tio n s u n r e h e a r s e d • R e q u ir e s in s ta n t a c tio n • S tr e s s f u l f o r p o te n tia l h e lp e r Conformity Inhibits Action Bystander Intervention Ask yourself, what would I have done? How much is attributed to the person and how much to the situation? Can you think of a time when you did something in a situation, and then wondered later why you went along? Social Psychology Looks at how the real or imagined presence of others (a.k.a., the social situation) influences individual behavior. PERSON in SITUATION ...
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