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Unformatted text preview: Treatment for Psychological Disorders T yp es o f T h er a p ies B io lo g ica l P sych o d yn a m ic Humanistic B eh a v io r a l SocioCultural E ffica cy o f T h er a p y Axis 1 Disorders A n x ie ty D is o r d e r s
Phobias, Panic Attacks, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder M o o d D is o r d e r s
Major Depressive, Bipolar, Seasonal Affective S c h iz o p h r e n ic D is o r d e r s O th e r d is o r d e r s
Dissociative, Sexual, Gender Identity, Eating, Somatoform Psychological Disorders: Defining
Normal and Abnormal P sych o lo g ica l D iso r d er
A condition in which a person’s thoughts, feelings, or behavior is judged to be dysfunctional Three necessary conditions Significant pain or distress. Problem resides in the person. Not a deliberate reaction to conditions (e.g., poverty, government policy) Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders Comorbidity of Disorders Many people who have psychological disorders experience more than one diagnosable disorder at the same time. Sex Differences in Prevalence
Differences in reporting Differences in self-treatment Bias in Diagnosis
D ia g n o s e d a s h is t r io n ic p e r s o n a lit y D ia g n o s e d a s a n t is o c ia l p e r s o n a lit y diagnose men with “male” disorders and women with “female” disorders Ford & Widiger (1989) a n ti s o c i a l = “ m a l e ” d i s o r d e r histrionic = “female” disorder Treatment QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Drug Treatments Antianxiety Drugs Tranquilizers; can treat generalized anxiety Trade names: Librium, Valium, Xanax, BuSpar Antidepressants Mood-elevating effects; can relieve depression Trade names: Tofranil, Prozac, Paxil Mood Stabilizer Calms mania; reduces bipolar mood swings Lithium Antipsychotic Drugs Reduce hallucinations and delusions Trade names: Thorazine, Clozaril, Risperidol Biological Perspective Biolog
D r u g T h er a p ies Electroconvulsive Therapy P sych o su r g er y Anti-Depressants Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Se e.g., Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Celexa Increase seratonin levels in parts of the brain Inc le Other medications activate norepinephrine (e.g., Tofranil) or Othe dopamine (e.g., Welbutrin) in the brain dopamine Effects Different mechanisms, all can elevate mood Typically take a weeks to take effect Sexual side effects (SSRIs) Dry mouth, loss of appetite (SSRIs, DAs) Side effects Electroconvulsive Therapy Tell me about your Freud mother… Psychological problems result from inner mental conflicts Must uncover these unconscious conflicts and resolve them Repressed memories Predisposing & precipitating experiences Psychoanalytic Therapy Key Terms in Psychoanalysis Free association A basic technique of psychoanalysis in which the patient says whatever comes to mind-freely and without censorship The tendency for patients to actively block, or “resist,” The psychologically painful insights The tendency of patients to displace intense feelings for others onto the therapist Resistance T r a n sfer en ce Behavioral Therapies Focus on observable stimuli & responses
Classical Conditioning Flooding Systematic Desensitization Aversive Conditioning Reward Program Biofeedback Social Skills Training Operant-Conditioning Aversion Therapy for Alcoholism Alcohol is paired with a chemical that causes nausea and vomiting Straightforward classical conditioning Exposure & Response Prevention Woman with hand-washing compulsion Baseline - Instruction Response prevention cycle After a few cycles, the woman was washing less often and getting fewer urges to wash Hand washing Urges Behavior Therapy Behavioral-therapy or Cognitive-behavioral Therapy Techniques used to modify disordered thoughts, feelings, and behaviors through the principles of learning Focus on observable stimuli & responses Classical Conditioning Techniques Flooding, Systematic Desensitization, Aversion Therapy Operant-Conditioning Techniques Reward and Punishment, Token Economy, Biofeedback, S o cia l S k ills T r a in in g Humanistic Therapy Emphasis on inner potential for positive growth P r o b lem s ca u sed b y d en ia l o f o w n feelin g s & distrust of ability to make deciHons does si ow Empathy th a t m a k e attempt to comprehend feelings you feel? from client’s point of view use of reflection client is worthy & capable no matter what client does or says creates safe, nonjudgmental atmosphere Unconditional positive regard Carl Rogers Why are you Treatment of depression beating yourself up over that? Depressed people Beck’s Cognitive Therapy distort experiences & maintain negative views of themselves, the world, their future minimize positive & maximize negative experiences misattribute negative experiences to own deficiencies Aaron Beck Irrational or Maladaptive Thoughts “I need to be rich to feel good about myself.” “Money is important, but so is being a good friend or responsible parent, and making a contribution to society.” “I can’t do anything right.” “Sometimes I make mistakes, but most of the time I get things right.” Common Irrational Beliefs Common
I must be perfect Everyone must love me The past determines the future It is catastrophic if things don't go as planned I have no control over my happiness I have to find a perfect solution to problems Happiness just happens Changing your thinking Disorders often occur with self-defeating beliefs Activating Event - Beliefs - Consequences Cognitive therapy helps people change these beliefs Explanatory Styles and Depression Explanat Explanatory styles among firstyear college students were assessed. Two years later, those with a negative style (tendency to attribute negative events to factors that are internal, stable, and global) were more likely to experience a major or minor depressive disorder. Examples of Negative Explanatory Style Examples “I didn’t get the job because I’m not very smart and I can’t communicate my ideas. I guess I will always have this problem because its who I am. I don’t think I’ll be able to find a job in the future because of this.” “I didn’t get the job because my skills just didn’t match the job requirements. I’ll find a better fit somewhere else, maybe where they’re looking for someone with my experience in …” The Vicious Cycle of Depression The Depression can lead to behaviors that cause social rejection, which worsens depression. Greta – diagnosed with depression
“Whenever I get depressed it’s because I’ve lost a sense of [my]self. I can’t find reasons to like myself. I think I’m ugly. I think no one likes me…I become grumpy and short-tempered. Nobody wants to be around me. I’m left alone. Being alone confirms that I am ugly and not worth being with. I think I’m responsible for everything that goes wrong.” Examples of Negative Explanatory Style Examples “I didn’t get the job because I am never able to communicate my ideas. I guess I will always have this problem because it’s who I am. I don’t think I’ll be able to find a job in the future because of this.” “I didn’t get the job because my skills just didn’t match the job requirements. I’ll find a better fit somewhere else, maybe where they’re looking for someone with my experience in …” Sociocultural Approach Issue oriented practices Marital, family, bereavement Facilitated, selfhelp Feminist, ethnic group, immigrant Group therapy Identity group Treatment = Whatever works!
Biological Perspective => Change Physiology Psychodynamic Perspective => Uncover conﬂicts co Behavioral Perspective => Retrain behavior Cognitive Perspective => Retrain thinking Sociocultural Perspective => Change culture Efficacy of Therapy Efficacy
Does Psychotherapy Work? Are Some Therapies Better Than Others? W h a t a b o u t it is h elp fu l? Benefits of Psychotherapy The average psychotherapy client shows more improvement than 80% in no-treatment control group S u m m a r y r e s u lt o f 4 7 5 s tu d ie s ( S m ith e t a l., 1 9 8 0 ) . Is More Psychotherapy Better? With additional therapy sessions, the percentage of people improved increased up to 26 sessions Rate of improvement then levels off B a sed o n a su m m a r y o f 1 5 s tu d i e s , 2 4 0 0 c l i e n ts (H o w a r d , e t a l ., 1 9 9 6 ) Do Some Therapies Work Better? Three common, nonspecific factors at work in all types of psychotherapy
Supportive relationship Reason for hope Opportunity to open up For some disorders, certain types of therapy tend to be more successful There is no universal “best” type of therapy Orientations of Psychotherapists Eclectic: Borrowing ideas and techniques from different approaches Treatment for Psychological Disorders T yp es o f T h er a p ies B io lo g ica l P sych o d yn a m ic Humanistic B eh a v io r a l SocioCultural E ffica cy o f T h er a p y ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2009 for the course BIO 225 taught by Professor Pavgi during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.
- Spring '08