Lecture 16 - Lecture 16: Feb. 11 Population Genetics:...

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1 Lecture 16: Feb. 11 Population Genetics: Detecting Evolutionary Change • Genetic makeup of population - allele & genotype frequencies • Hardy-Weinberg principle -p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 • HWE assumptions • Evolutionary processes • Applications of HWE Discussion Activity this Week Computer Simulations of Evolutionary Processes (week 7 folder) Essay Refs. due Feb. 15 Complete essay due by Feb. 22 Check Qwizdom Points on SAMS https://cats.lsa.umich.edu/ Chapters 24 :516-520, 535 essay genetic variation within and among natural populations Genetic variation some terms: population – a group of individuals living in the same area that are capable of interbreeding gene pool – all the alleles in the population Population Genetics mutation sexual reproduction Population Genetics: study of genetic variation within and among natural populations and the evolutionary processes that generate this variation Variation in shell color in a snail population most large populations in nature have high levels of phenotypic and genotypic variation Biological Evolution: change in the genetic makeup of a population Fruit flies in field ± Typical fly is heterozygous at 14% of its loci ± any 2 flies typically differ by ~ 1% in their genomic sequence Humans vary by ~ 0.1% in genomic sequence Genetic Variation within Natural Populations related to historical population sizes
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2 Genetic Variation in Natural Populations of Eukaryotes stems from the interaction of two very different processes: Mutation and Sexual Reproduction Mutation : rare and random process resulting from errors in DNA replication and/or cell division; original source of new alleles ; new mutations are often neutral, sometimes deleterious, rarely advantageous Sexual Reproduction : meiosis and random fertilization constantly reshuffle allelic combinations, but cannot change the frequency of alleles in a
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2009 for the course BIO 225 taught by Professor Pavgi during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Lecture 16 - Lecture 16: Feb. 11 Population Genetics:...

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