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Lecture 18 - This lecture will be covered on Exam 3 In 1902...

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This lecture will be covered on Exam 3 • In 1902, Archibald Garrod provided the first clue in the mystery of how genes work through his study of alkaptonuria , a disease in which homogentisic acid is secreted in the urine. Garrod hypothesized that the metabolic pathway in which homogentisic acid is an intermediate must be blocked in alkaptonurics ( Figure 15.1 ). This block must be due to lack of an enzyme that breaks down homogentisic acid, leading to its buildup. • George Beadle and Edward Tatum developed the one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis , which states that each gene carries the information for one protein or enzyme. • Adrian Srb and Norman Horowitz then published a rigorous test of the one-gene, one- enzyme hypothesis that focused on the ability of the bread mold Neurospora crassa to synthesize the amino acid arginine ( Figure 15.2 ).
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RNA polymerase is the enzyme that synthesizes mRNA by reading DNA sequences. RNA polymerase transcribes one strand
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