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BIO172W08Lec33CT - Biology 172 L e c t u r e 3 3 Im m u n e...

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1 Lecture 33: Immune System - Animals April 4, 2008 Today s Outline 1. Innate immunity - Barriers - Inflammation 2. Acquired immunity - Lymphocytes: T cells and B cells - Antibodies - Humoral and Cell-mediated Responses - Immunological Memory 3. Allergies and autoimmune diseases Announcements Biology 172 Immunity is resistance to or protection from disease-causing pathogens Two general mechanisms of immunity 1. Innate (response to any pathogen) 2. Acquired (response to specific pathogen) Immunization to promote acquired immunity was practiced (without understanding the biological mechanisms) in the middle ages Vaccination against smallpox initially used exposure to cowpox (Latin: vacca) Barriers to Pathogens Skin is most important physical and chemical barrier >> environment is dry and acidic Mucus protects lining of digestive, urinary, respiratory and genital tracts Innate immune response is inflammation Leukocytes Mediate the Innate Immune Response Leukocytes are ‘white blood cells’ produced in the bone marrow Pattern-recognition receptors on leukocytes recognize foreign molecules – Bacterial proteins begin with N- formylmethionine (instead of methionine) – Gram-negative bacteria have distinct lipopolysaccharides on surface) Innate immunity is the only immune response in invertebrates Three Types of Leukocytes 1. Mast cells – release chemical signals that constrict blood vessels near wound and histamine that dilates vessels nearby 2. Neutrophils – secrete lysozyme (degrades
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