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2.1 carbohydrate note

2.1 carbohydrate note - -simplest sugars- or...

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- 1 - CARBOHYDRATES carbon water (CH 2 O) n - polymers made up of monomers of monosaccharides (usually glucose) - contain a lot of –OH groups - monomers are usually in rings - may be branched - common in plants (product of photosynthesis) - bonds broken to release energy during cellular respiration Examples : 1. Sugars (Monosaccharide or Disaccharide) 2. Starches (Polysaccharide) 3. Glycogen (Polysaccharide) 4. Cellulose (Polysaccharide) Functions : 1. source of energy (sugars, starches) 2. energy storage (starches, glycogen) 3. structural component: found in cell walls and exoskeletons (cellulose) 4. source of fibre; helps move food through the digestive tract (cellulose) Foods that Contain Carbohydrates : Sugars - candies, fruits (oranges), honey, corn syrup, molasses, brown and white sugar Starch - breads, cereals, pastas, rice, bagels, crackers, potatoes Cellulose (high in fiber) - beans, brans
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- 2 - Monosaccharides “mono” meaning one and “saccharide” meaning sweet (sugar)
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Unformatted text preview: -simplest sugars-polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones many hydroxyl carbonyl group many hydroxyl carbonyl group groups at end groups not at end-the molecules consist of chains of carbon atoms -- all but one of which have a hydroxyl group-the remaining C contains a carbonyl group Function:-mainly as a source of energy Examples: (a) pentoses (5 carbon sugars) 1. ribose (found in RNA) 2. deoxyribose – a ribose that lacks one oxygen (found in DNA)-aldehyde (aldose )-aldehyde (aldose )-C 5 H 10 O 5-C 5 H 10 O 4 1. α-glucose (alpha-glucose) and β-glucose (beta-glucose) -- aldoses 2. α-galactose and β-galactose -- aldoses 3. fructose -- a ketose In water glucose exists in 3 forms: 0.02% open-chain form, 36% α-form and 64% β-form α-D-glucose (open-chain form) α-D-glucose (ring form) 6. | H - C - OH | H- 3 -...
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2.1 carbohydrate note - -simplest sugars- or...

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