Exam III Review - Exam III Review Chapter 12 Supercooled...

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Exam III Review Chapter 12 Supercooled Water: liquid at temperatures below freezing, liquid because there is no ice condensation nuclei (i.e. aircrafts) Ice Storms Indiana aircraft flew through supercooled drizzle droplets, 68 people died Great 1998 NE Ice Storms: ice 3” thick, $3 billion dollars damage Freezing Salt Water: ice crystal expands => salt drops out => clear ice Chapter 13 - Lake Effect Snows How do they occur? 1. Air approaching lakes is -13 to 23 degrees Farenheit 2. Reaches the lake and accelerates (less friction), resulting in speed divergence 3. Air descends (to fill divergence), resulting in clear air on western side of lakes 4. Warm lake warms surface air, increasing it’s capacity to hold more moisture 5. This warming destabilizes air => cumulus clouds form 6. Snowfall starts over the lake 7. Speed convergence when air reaches far side of like (because of friction), causing more unstable air to rise and causes more snow Famous lake effect snows November ’96 Veterans Day storm in Cleveland Some got 60”, 40 miles away 10” Thunder reported Christmas 2001 storm in Buffalo 20” or more per day for 3/5 days Chapter 15 - Colorado Snows and Blizzards Blizzard: winds > 35 mph; falling or blowing snow; visibility < 1/4 mile for at least 3 hours most common in N&S Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, N Iowa, E Colorado, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba Cold air from Canada mixes with moisture from the Gulf of Mexico/Atlantic thanks to extratropical cyclones that form east of the Rockies (air is blowing into the cyclone/low)
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Exam III Review Cold Core High: cold surface creates dense air => H => air flows out of the high, air from above descends causing H to intensify Colorado Cyclones and Snows 1. Cyclone forms in eastern Colorado 2. cA airmass comes down from Canada 3. Blizzard conditions develop behind the center of the low as the Gulf coast moisture and cold air are drawn into the low. This area of precipitation That wraps around the low is called a trowal. 4. Cyclonic upslope produces biggest snows Famous Blizzards North/South Dakota blizzards of 96/97 State of disaster declared, Bismark, ND had 101.7”, Fargo had 117” April 1997 blizzard in North Dakota killed 10% of cattle, $21.4 million in damage drifts 15 ft. high, all major roads closed, rapid melting caused Red River to flood Alberta Clippers cyclones formed in Alberta off jet stream waves, move quickly, less snow than CO cyclones, but very cold and windy (blowing/drifting snow) Chapter 17
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