Lecture 3 - Macromolecules Understand what the biological...

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Macromolecules Understand what the biological macromolecules are and how the polymeric molecules are formed and broken down. Be able to recognize the general structure of a carbohydrate and the various forms of monosaccharides that exists. Understand the roles of the polysaccharide in living systems. Understand what is meant by the term “branching” with regard to polysaccharide structure. Be able to recognize the general structure of an amino acid and understand the significance of the differing ability of amino acids to interact with water. Be able to describe the various levels of structure that proteins have and how this structure impacts the functionality of the protein. Understand the physical conditions that can impact the ability of proteins to properly take on their proper secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. Be able to recognize the symbols commonly used to denote the various forms of secondary structure.
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Macromolecules Be able to recognize the general structure of a nucleotide and understand the difference between ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Understand the nature of complementary base pairing and the physical conditions that will impact complementary base pairing. Be able to describe the different functional roles that RNA plays. When manipulating DNA, understand the difference between genomic DNA and cDNA. Be able to recognize the general structure of a phospholipid and describe the role that phospholipids play in living systems.
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Unit Molecules, Polymers and Their Associated Functions Polysaccharide/Complex Carbohydrate Polypeptide/Protein Nucleic Acids (2 flavors) Lipids
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Unit Molecules and Polymers Mono- vs. Di- vs. Tri- vs. Poly-
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Dehydration Synthesis of Polymers It’s all in the water, baby! H+ + OH- H 2 O Water is produced as a product.
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Hydrolysis of Polymers It’s all in the water, baby! H 2 O H+ + OH- Water is split in the reaction.
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Carbohydrates Simple sugars and polysaccharides (CH 2 O) N H ───C─── OH N
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Carbohydrate Naming and Structure Generally, end in –ose One carbon will have 2 bonds to oxygen Water soluble Most abundant
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Carbohydrate Naming and Structure Monosaccharides (classified by number of carbons)
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Carbohydrate Naming and Structure Monosaccharides (classified by number of carbons)
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Carbohydrate Naming and Structure Disaccharides Glycosidic bond
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