Lecture 7 - Microbial Metabolism Catalyst: substance that...

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Microbial Metabolism Enzyme = protein catalyst OR protein that aids in a chemical reaction **Exception. ..Ribozyme = RNA catalyst (composed of RNA) Catalyst : substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction but is not consumed in the process Enzyme A + B C + D Substrates (or reactants) Metabolites (or products)
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Enzyme Naming 1. Generally, end in – ase 2. Substrate is in the name (ex. Sucrase, Phospholipase) 3. Type of reaction carried out (ex. tRNA Synthetase, DNA polymerase) (ex. Acid hydrolase, Deoxyribonuclease) (ex. Alcohol dehydrogenase, Ribonucleotide reductase) Microbial Metabolism
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Types of Biochemical Reactions Anabolic (Synthetic) Reactions Glutamine Synthetase Glutamic Acid (amino acid) Ammonia Glutamine (amino acid)
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Types of Biochemical Reactions Catabolic (Decomposition) Reactions
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Types of Biochemical Reactions Catabolic (Decomposition) Reactions Enzyme obviates the need for harsh reaction conditions pH 7.4
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Types of Biochemical Reactions LEO the lion says, “GER!” L ose e lectrons (from a covalent bond), o xidize G ain e lectrons (into a covalent bond), r educe Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions Oxidation : increasing bonds to oxygen; decreasing bonds to hydrogen Reduction : decreasing bonds to oxygen; increasing bonds to hydrogen
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Types of Biochemical Reactions Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions C H H H H H H C C H H H H H C Alcohol C H H Aldehyde C H H Carboxylic Acid Reduced Oxidized Alcohol dehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenase Reductases
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Enzymes and Activation Energy
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Enzymes Function in Pathways Product of one reaction is the substrate for another enzyme in a series of steps Blocking any reaction in the pathway will stop the formation of the end product
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Enzymes Function in Pathways
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pH Temperature Osmolarity Concentrations of substrate(s), products, and enzyme Humans vs. Bacteria Control of Enzyme Activity Environmental Factors
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Control of Enzyme Activity Enzyme Synthesis Constitutive Enzyme synthesized at same rate independent of substrate levels Ex. Glycolysis enzymes Constitutive vs. Inducible/Repressible Synthesis
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Control of Enzyme Activity Enzyme Synthesis Inducible Enzymes are synthesized in response to exposure to the substrate Ex. Lac operon Constitutive vs. Inducible/Repressible Synthesis
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Control of Enzyme Activity Enzyme Synthesis Repressible Product is involved in actively blocking synthesis of the enzyme Ex. Trp operon Constitutive vs. Inducible/Repressible Synthesis
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Control of Enzyme Acitivity Competitive Inhibition Inhibitor has similar molecular structure to substrate(s) Binds to the active site but does not react Blocks substrate(s) from gaining access to the active site Inhibition can be permanent or reversible
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Control of Enzyme Acitivity Allosteric Regulation (Noncompetitive) Non-substrate molecule binds to the enzyme Binding changes the shape such that substrates bind at different efficiencies Allosteric binding can act positively or negatively to effect enzyme activity
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Control of Enzyme Activity Feedback Inhibition End product of a pathway binds to an allosteric site of an enzyme in the pathway to decrease activity of the enzyme and flow through the pathway.
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2009 for the course BIOT 101 taught by Professor Don during the Fall '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Lecture 7 - Microbial Metabolism Catalyst: substance that...

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