Lecture handout 1 - BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 1 History of...

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BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 1 History of Biotechnology Vocabulary chain-termination sequencing clones dideoxynucleotide sequencing DNA polymerase gene expression ligase methylases methylation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction endonuclease transformation Scientists of Interest Anton van Leeuwenhoek Arthur Kornberg Carl Correns Edouard van Beneden Erich Tschermak Erwin Chargaff Francis Crick Frederick Griffith Fredrick Sanger Friedrich Miescher Gregor Mendel Herbert Boyer Hermann Muller Hugo De Vries James Watson Kary Mullis Robert Brown Robert Hooke Stanley Cohen Thomas Hunt Morgan W.E. Castle Walter Flemming William Perkin Objectives Be able to describe the progressions of thought that led to the realization that DNA was the genetic material. Be able to describe the contribution to this progression made by the scientists listed above. Know the function of the DNA modifying enzymes that have been discovered since the 1950’s and understand why they have been crucial to the development of the field of biotechnology. Understand why the processes of DNA sequencing and PCR have been pivotal to the progress of understanding of molecular genetics and the development of biotechnology. 1
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BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 1 History of Biotechnology Historical Perspective Material in this section provides a historical introduction and is meant for self-study; it will not be covered in class Source: http://photoscience.la.asu.edu/photosyn/courses/BIO_343/lecture/history.html Knowledge of the principles of heredity is so basic to our fundamental understanding of the biological sciences that it is hard to believe that these principles were discovered only in the 1860s (and their importance was realized less than a century ago). However, a practical knowledge of the hereditary process came long before its mechanism was understood. Archeologists have discovered that as long as 7,000 years ago farmers in Central America were improving crops of corn by planting hybrid corn seeds that had developed preferred characteristics. Over 6,000 years ago, the Chinese learned how to develop superior strains of rice. An ancient Babylonian tablet shows a pedigree of a family of horses through five generations, with detailed information about height, length of the mane, and other traits, revealing that they had some knowledge that these traits were transmitted. Farmers and gardeners have continued to practice this type of selective breeding in both plants and animals. Each time an individual plant or animal appeared with a desired characteristic, it was bred again to produce more with similar traits. For example, at harvest time farmers would select heads of wheat that had the most or largest kernels and save them to use as seed the next year. Science (or more generally, curiosity) received a large boost during the Renaissance.
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Lecture handout 1 - BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 1 History of...

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