Lecture Handout 4 - BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 4 Cell Theory...

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BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 4 Cell Theory and Cell Structure and Function Vocabulary Actin filaments Archaea Carotenoids Cell Theory Cells Centrioles Centrosome Chlorophyll Chloroplasts Chromatin Chromosomes Cilia Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic reticulum Eukaryotic cell Flagellin Flagellum Glycoproteins Glycosylation Golgi complex Grana Histones Intermediate fibers Lysosomes Microfilaments Microtubules Microvilli Mitochondria Motor microtubule Nuclear envelope nuclear pores Nucleoid Nucleolus Nucleus Organ Organ system Organism Peptidoglycan Peroxisomes Phospholipid bilayer Prokaryotic cell Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Stroma Structural microtubule- associated proteins Thylakoids Tissues Vacuoles Objectives Understand the differences between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Be able to explain the function of the organelles found in the eukaryotic cell. Know the components of the cytoskeleton and how those components function in the eukaryotic cell. 1
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Cell Theory and Cellular Structure and Function I. The cell theory states that all living organisms consists of one or more cells. Most life on the planet consists of a single, independently living cell (protists, bacteria, yeasts and algae). “Higher” organisms such as plants and animals are made up of multitudes of individual cells. In these multicellular organisms the following progression of complexity exists: cells with similar appearance and function group into tissues , tissues of several types group into organs , organs are arranged into organ systems and organs systems work together to form the organism . A. In animals, four or five types of tissue are recognized: connective tissue, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue and nervous tissue (some authorities list blood as a distinct tissue type while others group blood with the connective tissues). For more information on this topic, go to http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AnimalTissues.html . B. In animals, organs are said to be discrete. This means that the boundaries of the organ are well defined. Organs within an animal work with other organs in 11 organ systems. The organ systems are the integumentary system, the circulatory system, lymphatic system, immune system, digestive system, nervous system, endocrine system, reproductive system, muscular system, skeletal system, respiratory system and excretory system. For more explanation of these systems, go to http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookANIMORGSYS.html . II. All cells have a cytoplasmic membrane (a.k.a. cell membrane, plasma membrane) that separates the inside of the cell ( cytoplasm ) from the surrounding environment. The membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded and associated proteins and glycoproteins. The lipid core of the membrane is hydrophobic thus creating a barrier for hydrophilic materials to enter the cell. 2
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2009 for the course BIOT 101 taught by Professor Don during the Fall '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Lecture Handout 4 - BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 4 Cell Theory...

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