Lecture Handout 8 - BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 8 Selective...

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BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 8 Selective Breeding Vocabulary AOSCA Breeder seed artificial insemination (AI) certified seed Certified seed emasculate first filial generation (F 1 ) Foundation seed heritability heterosis hybrid vigor hybrids in-breeding depression heirloom Registered seed selective breeding Objectives Understand the goals and process of selective breeding. Understand the difference between genetically and environmentally determined characteristics. Understand what the “Certified Seed” program is and what criteria must be met for seed to be certified. Understand the limitations of selective breeding and the problems associated with this process. Understand some of the steps being taken to address the problems associated with selective breeding. 1
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BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 8 Selective Breeding I. The oldest form of biotechnology involves the development of domesticated species of plants and animals for agriculture. Evidence of breed improvement practices can be found in some of the earliest records left by human civilization. In the process known as selective breeding , breeders of animals and plants are looking to produce organisms that possess desirable characteristics, such as high crop yields, resistance to disease, high growth rate and many other phenotypical characteristics that will benefit humans in the long term (though they may not benefit the species in either the long term or short term). A. Selective breeding usually involves crossing two members of the same species that possess dominant alleles for particular genes, such as long life and quick metabolism in one organism crossed with another organism possessing genes for fast growth and high yield. Since both these organisms have dominant genes for these desirable characteristics, when they are crossed they will produce at least some offspring that will show all of these desirable characteristics. When such a cross occurs, the offspring are said to be hybrids . This term refers to the offspring of a mating between two genetically dissimilar parents that usually produces offspring with more desirable qualities. Increased vigor in the offspring of such a mating is referred to as heterosis or hybrid vigor . B. When a particular characteristic of a plant or animal is selected as the goal for a breeding program, it must first be determined its heritability . This is directly linked to the degree to which the desired characteristic is genetically determined. Some desirable characteristics are genetically determined while others are more influenced by environmental conditions. Most
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2009 for the course BIOT 101 taught by Professor Don during the Fall '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Lecture Handout 8 - BIOT 101 Lecture Handout 8 Selective...

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