Lecture Handout 13 - BIOT 101 Handout 13 Applications of...

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BIOT 101 Handout 13 Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture Vocabulary ACC ACC-synthase antisense RNA (aRNA) Bacillus thuringiensis Beta-carotene Bt toxin Carotene desaturase Cry genes Dicer EPSPS Ethylene Ethylene-forming enzyme Flavr Savr tomato Genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) Geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) Glufosinates Glutamine synthase (GS) Glyphosates Golden Rice Lepodoptera Lycopene α ,β-cyclase Phosphinothricin Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) Phytoene synthase Polygalacturonase (PG) Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) RNAi (RNA interference) S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) Slicer Small interfering RNA (siRNA) δ-endotoxin Objectives Understand the reasons that GM plants have been developed and be familiar with the types of plants that have been genetically modified and their rate of utilization by growers. Be able to describe the enzymes or pathways that have been introduced into plants to accomplish the desired alteration. Be able to describe the regulatory agencies and their jurisdiction with regard to GM foods. Understand how antisense RNA can be used to modify an organism. Be able to describe the mode of action of aRNA and RNAi. 1
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BIOT 101 Handout 13 Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture I. Although genetically modified organisms ( GMO’s ) in agriculture have been available for only 10 years, their commercial use has expanded rapidly. Recent estimates are that more than 60 - 70 percent of food products on store shelves may contain at least a small quantity of crops produced with these new techniques. Crops, and food produced from these crops, may be genetically engineered for number of reasons, most commonly for resistance to pesticides, viruses, and insects, as well as increasing the product’s shelf life. The following genetically engineered crops have been approved for sale in the United States, but not all of them are on the market 1 : Soybeans - In 2006, 89% of all soybeans grown in the USA were transgenic Cotton - In 2006, 83% of all cotton grown in the USA was transgenic Corn - In 2006, 61% of all corn grown in the USA was transgenic Canola - In 2005, 80% of all canola grown in the Canada was transgenic Papaya – In 2004, 50% of all papaya grown in Hawaii was the “Rainbow” variety As of 2006, the following transgenic crops have been granted “Nonregulated Status” by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2 . Some crops are on the market in minor quantities while others have been withdrawn for various reasons. Potatoes Tomatoes Squash Radicchio Sugar beets Rice Flax Alfalfa Currently, field tests are being conducted on a number of different genetically engineered crops including apple, avocado, banana, blueberry, carrot, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, eggplant, lettuce, onion, pea, pepper, pineapple, plum, strawberry, sweet potato, and watermelon.
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