Lecture Handout 14 - BIOT 101 Handout 14 Medicinal and...

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BIOT 101 Handout 14 Medicinal and Diagnostic Applications Vocabulary α -1-antitrypsin (AAT) Actinomycetes Adeno-associated viruses Adenosine deaminase (ADA) Adenoviruses Alkaline phosphatase Antibiotics Cell-based therapies CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator) Chromagen Conjugate antibody Cystic fibrosis (CF) Cytochrome P450 DNA microarrays Elastase ELISA Emphysema Herpes simplex viruses Horseradish peroxidase Human growth hormone (hGH) Humulin Insulin-dependent diabetes Liposome Monoclonal antibodies Oligonucleotides Pharmacogenomics Photolithography Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Probe Pro-insulin Retroviruses Secondary antibody Semisynthetic antimicrobial drugs Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID) Stem cells Target β-lactoglobulin Objectives Be able to describe the areas in which biotechnology will impact the development of medicine and diagnostics. Understand what antibiotics are and originally where they come from. Know what a semisynthetic antibiotic is and why they were created. Be aware of some of the protein drugs that exist today, the diseases that they are used to treat and how these drugs are produced. Understand why, in some cases, it is necessary to produce a protein drug in a mammalian host such as a sheep. Understand what is meant by gene therapy. Be able to list some of the vectors used in gene therapy. Understand why these types of vectors are used. Be able to describe some of the diseases that are being targeted for gene therapy. Be able to describe the nature of stem cells are and how they are derived. Understand why they are thought to hold the key for the treatment of a wide variety of disorders and diseases. Understand the nature of the hurdles that must be surmounted before stem cell treatments will become common place. Understand what antibodies are and how monoclonal antibodies are generated. Understand what a hybridoma is. Understand what ELISA tests are and how monoclonal antibodies are utilized in these tests. Be able to describe how ELISA tests are designed for the detection of antibody or antigen in a specimen. Be able to describe how PCR and DNA microarrays can be utilized in diagnostics. Understand what pharmacogenomics are and be able to describe some of the benefits that hopefully will be derived from application of pharmacogenomics. 1
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BIOT 101 Handout 14 Medicinal and Diagnostic Applications I. Medicine in the 21 st century will be greatly impacted by the application of the tools of biotechnology to the manufacture of therapeutic molecules, diagnostic tests and correction of genetic disorders. A. Development and production of drugs is one of the major areas in which biotechnology has been applied. Most of the larger companies involved in modern biotechnology have a relatively long history of conventional drug and antibiotic production. Revolutionary diagnostic techniques are currently being brought to market that rely upon the tools of biotechnology. Often, drugs and diagnostic products are brought to market by smaller companies (startup
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2009 for the course BIOT 101 taught by Professor Don during the Fall '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Lecture Handout 14 - BIOT 101 Handout 14 Medicinal and...

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