Lecture Handout 15 - BIOT 101 Handout 15 Environmental...

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BIOT 101 Handout 15 Environmental Applications of Biotechnology Vocabulary Advanced treatment system Aeration tank Bar screening Belt presses Bioaugmentation Biodegradation Biomat Bioremediation Biosolids recylcing Chlorine disinfection Conveyance system Digestion Effluent Filtration Final Clarifiers Final treatment Individual sewage-treatment system (ISTSs) Municipal sewage treatment plant Preliminary treatment Secondary treatment Septic systems Settling system Solids dewatering Solids processing Superfund Toxic metals Ultraviolet treatment Objectives Understand the meaning of and the difference between the terms biodegradation and bioremediation. Be aware of the range of applications for these processes. Be able to explain the basic structure and the function of the various components of an individual sewage treatment system and a municipal sewage treatment plant. Be able to explain the basic principles of biodegradation. Understand what toxic metals are and how microbes and plants can be used to remove them from industrial waste streams and contaminated water and land. 1
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BIOT 101 Handout 15 Environmental Applications of Biotechnology Be able to explain the basic principles of bioremediation. Be aware of the factors that will influence the rate at which contaminates are metabolized or removed from contaminated soil or water. Understand what bioaugmentation is and why it would be undertaken. Be able to explain the role of modern biotechnology in the further development biodegradation and bioremediation. 2
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BIOT 101 Handout 15 Environmental Applications of Biotechnology I. Over the last 30 years, the use of bacteria, fungi and plants to “clean up” contaminated soil and water has received considerable attention. But the use of living organisms to decontaminate wastes such as human sewage has a long and extremely pervasive history. Industrial applications involving the use of living organisms in the decontamination of industrial wastes and reclamation of contaminated land is a growing area of biotechnology. The use of living organisms to break down toxic industrial wastes before their release into the environment is referred to as biodegradation . The use of living organisms to decontaminate the environment is referred to as bioremediation . A. Applications of biodegradation include treatment of sewage, detoxification of industrial wastes before release and removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams. Application of bioremediation involves the cleanup of soil or water that is contaminated with toxic materials spills including areas designated as Superfund 1 sites and oil spills. In both cases, the traditional approaches rely upon naturally occurring plants, fungi or bacteria to carry out bioremediation or biodegradation. Increasingly genetically modified organisms are being created that will more efficiently carry out processes or will be capable of types of bioremediation/biodegradation that are not possible using naturally occurring
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Lecture Handout 15 - BIOT 101 Handout 15 Environmental...

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