Chapters 8 and 9 - Cellular Respiration Understand the flow...

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Cellular Respiration Understand the flow of energy found in the bonds between carbons in glucose as glucose is broken down aerobically. This understanding should include the ability to explain the following objectives: 1. Be able to explain what occurs to glucose in glycolysis. 2. Be able to explain how the products of glycolysis are handled by organisms capable of aerobic respiration.
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Cellular Respiration 3. Be able to explain where NAD+ is reduced in the aerobic breakdown of glucose. Know what becomes of NADH in aerobic respiration. 4. Be able to explain what occurs in oxidative decarboxylation and in the Kreb’s cycle. 5. Be able to explain the role that the electron transport chain plays in aerobic respiration. 6. Be able to explain the role that molecular oxygen (O 2 ) plays in aerobic respiration. 7. Be able to explain the chemiosmotic theory of ATP synthesis.
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Cellular Respiration 8. Be able to explain where these metabolic processes associated with aerobic respiration are occurring in the eukaryotic cell and in the prokaryotic cell. Understand the differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration. With regard to anaerobic respiration, understand what occurs to the NADH produced in glycolysis and why this is necessary. Be aware of the significant difference in ATP yield between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
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Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis chemiosmosis
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Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions NAD+ + 2 e- NAD- NAD- + H+ NADH NADH NAD+ + 2 e- + H+ FAD + 2e- FAD= FAD= + 2 H+ FADH 2 LEO the lion says, “GER!” L ose e lectrons (from a covalent bond), o xidize G ain e lectrons (into a covalent bond), r educe
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Methods of ATP Synthesis Substrate-level phosphorylation Synthesis of ATP in a chemical reaction where high energy molecules are broken down and ADP is used as a substrate. Oxidative phosphorylation Energy captured from electron transport that is used to synthesize ATP from ADP by a process called chemiosmosis.
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Glycolysis
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Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is broken down in an anaerobic enzymatic process known as glycolysis . Although 2 ATP are consumed and 4 ATP are produced, the yield is 2 ATP , 2 NADH and 2 Pyruvate . ATP generated are from substrate-level phosphorylation.
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The 2 Pyruvate molecules can enter the Citric Acid Cycle (aka Krebs Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle).
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Transition Reaction (for Aerobic Respiration) For pyruvate to be used for energy production downstream of glycolysis, pyruvate must undergo a transition to acetyl CoA .
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Citric Acid Cycle (aka Krebs Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle). 2 Pyruvate molecules are converted to 2 Acetyl CoA which results in the formation of 2 NADH and 2 CO 2 (waste). The yield of 2 Acetyl CoA entering the Kreb’s Cycle is 6 NADH , 2 FADH 2 , 2 ATP , and 4 more CO 2 are produced as waste. ATP generated are
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Chapters 8 and 9 - Cellular Respiration Understand the flow...

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