Chapter 6 and 7 1 - Cellular Communication Understand the...

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Cellular Communication Understand the mechanisms that allow cells to communicate with each other. Be able to explain the mechanism of signal transduction. Understand the significance of signal amplification. Understand the differences between paracrine and endocrine messengers. Be able to list and describe several examples of paracrine messengers and endocrine messengers.
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Cellular Communication Be able to describe the structure of a transmembrane receptor. For the major types of receptors, understand how binding of ligand to that receptor leads to a transduction of a message to the cytoplasm. Understand what occurs in up-regulation and down-regulation. Understand the chemical differences between signaling molecules that bind to receptors on the cell surface and those that bind to receptors in the cytoplasm.
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Cellular Communication Be able to describe the mode of action employed by most intracellular receptors- signaling molecule complexes and how this leads to changes in the target cell. With regard to signaling pathways described in your book, be able to describe the following:
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Cellular Communication the cell from which the signaling molecule originates the reason for production of the signaling molecule the target cell that is affected the mode of action of the signaling molecule the effect that is created at the target cell the mechanism by which the signal is terminated
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Cellular Communication Cell signaling: mechanisms by which cells communicate with one another Send signal (synthesize and release) Reception (target cell receives signal) Signal transduction (extracellular intracellular signal) *Amplification* Response *Signal termination*
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Cellular Communication Cell signaling: mechanisms by which cells communicate with one another
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Cellular Communication Bacteria: Quorum sensing Biofilm
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Cellular Communication
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Paracrine Regulation Signaling molecule diffuses and acts on nearby cells Histamine: blood vessel dilate, permeable Prostaglandins: regulate metabolic activities, smooth muscle, contract/relax Nitric oxide: Smooth muscle, blood vessels dilate
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Paracrine Regulation
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Endocrine Regulation Signaling molecule transported by blood to target cells Hormones: secreted by endocrine glands Insulin
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Neurotransmitters Signaling molecule diffuses across synapses Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin Amino acids, peptides
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Receptors and Their Ligands Receptor = protein Ligand binding, transmembrane, tail domains
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Receptors and Their Ligands Ligand = light Phytochromes (flowering) Cryptochromes (rhythms)
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Receptors Regulation Down-Regulation When the concentration of signaling molecule is too high for an extended period, the number of receptors on the cell surface is decreased.
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2009 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Don during the Fall '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Chapter 6 and 7 1 - Cellular Communication Understand the...

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