Chapter 13 and 14 - The Gene: Transcription and Translation...

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The Gene: Transcription and Translation Understand the experiments of Beadle and Tatum. Understand the roles of transcription and translation in protein synthesis. Understand the process of transcription and why this process occurs. Be able to describe the steps and enzymes involved in this process. Be able to explain why transcription and translation can be coupled in the prokaryote while they are distinct processes in the eukaryote.
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The Gene: Transcription and Translation Understand the processes of post- transcriptional modification that occur in the eukaryotic cell. Understand the process of translation and why this process occurs. Be able to describe the steps, enzymes and other materials involved in this process. Know the various type of RNA that are made by transcription and how they function in the process of translation. Understand the idea of the codon.
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The Gene: Transcription and Translation Know what is meant by the term genetic code. Given a DNA sequence, be able to determine the RNA sequence that would be transcribed. Given the genetic code, be able to translate a sequence of RNA into the a sequence of amino acids. Be aware of the various types of mutations and the effect that mutations can have on an organism. Know why a substitution mutation may have little or no effect on the protein coded for by the affected gene.
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The Gene: Transcription and Translation Understand the concept of the frameshift mutation and be able to explain why this form of mutation has a profound effect on the amino acid sequence coded for by the gene. Know what a transposon is.
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The Gene: Transcription and Translation Understand the concept of the frameshift mutation and be able to explain why this form of mutation has a profound effect on the amino acid sequence coded for by the gene. Know what a transposon is.
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Central Dogma
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Gene Expression DNA RNA Protein
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1941 Hypothesis: Genes act by regulating definite chemical events Neurospora crassa (bread mold) Enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis Induced mutations with X-rays George Beadle Edward
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1941 George Beadle Edward
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1941 George Beadle Edward 1958 “One Gene / One Enzyme”
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Central Dogma
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RNA vs. DNA RNA synthesized in the same manner as DNA (5’ to 3’) Made using DNA as a template (transcription) Translated into protein 3 major differences from DNA
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RNA vs. DNA 3 differences 1. Ribose (sugar) (hydroxyl at 2’)
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RNA vs. DNA 3 differences 1. Ribose (sugar) (hydroxyl at 2’) 2. Uracil instead of thymine
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RNA vs. DNA 3 differences 1. Ribose (sugar) (hydroxyl at 2’) 2. Uracil instead of thymine 3. Single-stranded (1 strand)
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2009 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Don during the Fall '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Chapter 13 and 14 - The Gene: Transcription and Translation...

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