Chapter 24 - Viruses and Bacteria • Understand how...

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Unformatted text preview: Viruses and Bacteria • Understand how viruses differ from living cells. Be aware that different types of viruses exist that infect all types of cells. Understand what is meant by the term host range. • Understand the basic structure of the virion of a naked and an enveloped virus. Understand the basic steps in the life cycle of a virus. Be able to explain the lifecycle of a lytic bacteriohphage, a lysogenic bacteriophage, a mammalian DNA virus and a retrovirus. Viruses and Bacteria • Understand the nature of the prion and how prions induce the formation of more prions. • Be aware of the different shapes that prokaryotic cells can take on. Be able to identify and describe the function of the various structural components of a prokaryotic cell. • Understand the nature of reproduction in prokaryotic cells. Be able to describe the ways that horizontal gene transfer occurs in the prokaryotic cell. Viruses and Bacteria • Understand the significance of the endospore to survival of bacteria in inhospitable environments. • Be aware of the various means for obtaining energy and carbon and the various oxygen requirements that bacteria species have. • Be aware of the two prokaryotic domains. Understand the various harsh environments that species of Archaea have evolved to survive in. Viruses and Bacteria • Be aware of the role that bacteria play in the environment, agriculture and industrial processes. Understand their essential role in the nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus cycles. • Understand the various forms of symbiosis that exists and that we have beneficial symbiotic relationships with many species of bacteria. • Be aware of the pathogenic potential of some bacterial species. Viruses and Bacteria • Understand what Koch’s postulates are. • Be able to describe the difference between endotoxins and exotoxins. Viruses • Not classified in the Linnean system (Why?) • Obligate intracellular parasites • Virion: virus capable of infecting a cell Host Range • Species virus is capable of infecting Animal virus – some limited to specific tissues Plant virus – infects entire plant by moving between connections between cells and by using nutrient transports systems • Bacteriophage: bacteria virus Infect limited number of species Can be specific to only particular strains of one species (Phage typing) Future use as antimicrobial therapy? Virion Size • Typical virus: 20-100 nm • Ribosome: 15 nm • Bacteria: 5000 nm • Eukaryote: 50,000 – 100,000 nm • To be visualized, requires an electron microscope History • Up until the 1940s – filterable agents 1892 – Dmitri Ivanowsky, tobacco mosaic disease Viruses are infectious acellular entities 1931 – specific filterable agents responsible for various disease (yellow fever, rabies, hoof-in-mouth disease) • 1920s and 1930s – microscopic techniques used to visualize large viruses • 1950s – field of virology founded History • Viral life cycle Constantin Levaditi...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2009 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Don during the Fall '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Chapter 24 - Viruses and Bacteria • Understand how...

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