SB_Chem6A_08_Lecture2

SB_Chem6A_08_Lecture2 - Chemistry 6A 1 What is energy? What...

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Chemistry 6A 1
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Chemistry 6A What is energy? What is matter? How do energy and matter interact? 2
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Chemistry 6A 3 E TOTAL = E k + E p Kinetic (E k ) Results from (translational) motion of objects For an object of mass m traveling at a speed v : An object at rest has zero kinetic energy “The ability to do work” E k = 1 2 mv 2
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Chemistry 6A 4 E TOTAL = E k + E p Potential (E p ) Results from a force, F, between objects; It is the potential for energy on account of an objects relative position in a field of force. E p = F x d Two common types of forces, where F = m x a , are: Gravitational : Electrostatic (or Coulombic) : “The ability to do work” E p = mgh E p = ( q 1 q 2 4 πε 0 r 2 ) × r
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Chemistry 6A 5 E p E p > E K E K > E p Heat, Sound
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Chemistry 6A 6 Light (Radiant Energy) Sound Wind (Motion) Chemical Nuclear “Heat” or Thermal Electrical
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Chemistry 6A 7
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Chemistry 6A 8 Matter: occupies space and has mass Mixtures Pure Substances Homogeneous Heterogeneous Physically separable? Chromatography Crystallization Distillation Compounds Elements Uniform properties? Optical microscopy Chemically separable?
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Chemistry 6A 9 Pure substance (an idealization): Does not change its chemical characteristics upon exhaustive attempts of purification. Element: A substance which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances (elements) by ordinary chemical or physical means (obsolete definition). Exemplars: hydrogen, carbon, oxygen. Compound: A compound is a substance that can be decomposed into simpler substances (different elements) by chemical processes. Exemplars: water (hydrogen and oxygen), carbon dioxide (carbon and oxygen). Atomic interpretation:
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SB_Chem6A_08_Lecture2 - Chemistry 6A 1 What is energy? What...

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