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15 The Internet Network Protocols Protocol: a set of communication rules that allow devices to understand each others’ messages Networks have utilized a myriad of communication technologies and protocols at various levels (application, network, transport, etc.) Internet – Client-Server Model Server - A computer that makes services available to a network Client - A computer or other device that requests services from a server A device can be both server and client Client-Server Network – Computers that act as servers tend to be dedicated to that role, and devices that act as clients tend to be dedicated to a functional role that requires services from servers
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16 A Little History ARPANET ARPANET – Internet predecessor » developed in 1960’s and 1970’s for DARPA, the U.S. Government’s Defense Advanced Research Project’s agency » originally two nodes at UCLA and Stanford, connected by a phone line ARPANET grew into the “Internet” as it expanded to non-defense uses through the 1980’s Growth Adopted TCP/IP, a set of well-defined communication protocols, as a standard in 1983. Al Gore, as a congressman and Senator from Tennessee, played a significant role in encouraging U.S. Government funding of the Internet infrastructure Pre-WWW Services & Protocols File Transfer - FTP SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) – for transporting mail between servers POP (Post Office Protocol) – client/server email transfer Gopher – a document retrieval & network protocol originated at the University of Minnesota
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17 Now Physically Includes hundreds of millions of interconnected computers, cell phones, PDA's, televisions, networks, etc. Uses a variety of communication media, such as Ethernet, fiber-optic cables, satellites, phone lines, etc. Hypertext Hypertext is a method of organizing information that gives the reader control over the order in which the information is presented A conventional book is linear, with one path, from page x to page x+1 With hypertext, each “page” provides alternate paths, and you progress, digress, or jump as you wish
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18 Hypertext Hyperlinks The key to hypertext is the use of hyperlinks (or links) that allow users to jump from one topic to another. A link may point to another section of the same document, or to another document In theory, links can be one-way or two-way, and can have relationship values (definition, example, subordinate, parent, etc.) Conceived (but not named) by Vannevar Bush in 1945 The term was coined in 1963 by Ted Nelson, whose proposed Xanadu network concept placed emphasis on backward links, version management, and rights management HyperCard for the Macintosh was the first widespread implementation of Hypertext, in 1987
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19 World Wide Web At CERN, (European Center for High Energy Physics), Timothy Berners-Lee Proposed the use of a “hypertext server”, “browser”, and “hypermedia”, in 1989
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