11-17 & 11-19 Representation_and_Retrieval

11-17 & 11-19 Representation_and_Retrieval - 11/16/2009

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11/16/2009 1 Representation and Retrieval • Reviewing the framework – Information processing sequence • Encoding – entering information into cognitive system Attention Interpretation • Elaboration – going beyond the information Evaluation and judgment Inference Attribution Representation – storing new knowledge Retrieval – using stored knowledge Response Representation and Retrieval • So far – focus on how information is processed – Some (but not all) stimulus info encoded; selective attention – Interpreted – Elaborated in various ways – evaluation, inference, attribution Representation and Retrieval • Information then stored in memory. But – – Stimulus info has been transformed. Therefore -- – Mental representation of it may differ from actual input. But – – That representation is basis for later retrieval and response – So -- Use of information is based on retrieval
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11/16/2009 2 Representation and Retrieval Representation and Retrieval • Model does a good job of specifying – How information is represented in memory (and why) – How information is retrieved from memory Representation and Retrieval • Representation, retrieval, and judgment – the use of heuristics • Information represented in memory -- used for many purposes, e.g., judgments & decisions. – “Do you think Ryan is a smart guy?” – Candidate Smith – is he a conservative? – How many times have we been told “the economy is sound”? – How are these judgments made?
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11/16/2009 3 Representation and Retrieval – “Do you think Ryan is a smart guy?” • Judgment formed on-line (stored in memory) or memory-based (on retrieval of relevant info from memory) – Candidate Smith – is he a conservative? • “Image” (prototype) of what a conservative is. How well does Mr. Smith match prototype? Pro-choice, but favors gun control, pro-business, but anti-tax cuts, etc. – How many times – “the economy is sound”? • To provide accurate answer, recall all instances from memory • Problem: to be accurate, judgment process can take a lot of work (time, energy). • Solution: short cuts – heuristics. Tversky & Kahneman (1974; Rdng. 10). Representation and Retrieval Heuristic – a “rule of thumb” applied to available information – allows making judgments with little processing effort – judgments are reasonably accurate -- in most cases . • However -- – “rule of thumb” -- not a thorough, logical analysis; therefore -- – can produce systematic errors and biases. Representation and Retrieval • Why base judgments on error-prone process? – Information needed for logical judgment may not be available – Limited capacities and resources – Decisions need to be made quickly • Therefore use heuristics – Subject to error, but – Usually produce judgments that are sufficiently accurate
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11/16/2009 4 Representation and Retrieval • Judgment heuristics – Representativeness
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11-17 & 11-19 Representation_and_Retrieval - 11/16/2009

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