12-3 Anticipating_the_Future

12-3 Anticipating_the_Future - 11/22/2009 Anticipating the...

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11/22/2009 1 Anticipating the Future How the mind works – processing & using • Understanding the past – aids in understanding the present, preparing for future. • Anticipating the future – looking beyond the present. – How do we foresee the future? – Are we any good at it? – How do cognitive processes influence that future? Anticipating the Future • Cognitive structures have expectancies -- – Based on past experiences – Guide information processing – Used in predicting future – Guide perceptions, behavior Self-fulfilling prophecy – expectancies creating (not perceptually distorting) reality. – How does it work? Anticipating the Future • Consider two persons interacting: A bB B • Person A has expectancy about Person B. – A thinks B is unfriendly. • A’s expectancy guides A’s own behavior toward B. – A “keeps her distance” and is cool toward B. • A’s expectancy influences B’s response to A. – B responds to A in reserved manner. • B’s response confirms A’s expectancy about B. – A thinks, “Yep, B sure isn’t very friendly.” • Therefore, A’s expectancy has created behavioral confirmation. A’s perception is not distorted – B was not friendly. Hence, a self-fulfilling prophecy. • But – A is unaware that her own expectancies and behavior have determined B’s behavior.
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11/22/2009 2 Anticipating the Future • Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977; Rdng. 37) – M & F participants, different rooms, get acquainted process via phone – M -- given photo of F; attractive or unattractive -- not photo of actual partner -- rates impression of F; -- Attr > Unattr; this is M’s “prophecy”
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This document was uploaded on 12/07/2009.

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12-3 Anticipating_the_Future - 11/22/2009 Anticipating the...

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