lecture2 - Cognitive Structures Encoding entering...

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1 Cognitive Structures – Encoding – entering information into cognitive system • Attention • Interpretation – Elaboration – going beyond the information • Evaluation and judgment • Inference • Attribution – Representation – storing new knowledge – Retrieval – using stored knowledge – Response Cognitive Structures Cognitive structures - the knowledge, beliefs, and expectancies about some domain – Learned from past experience; – Pertains to a particular domain – Stored in memory, accessed for later use Cognitive Structures • Types of cognitive structures – Concept – Category – Script – Trait – Stereotype – Self
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2 Cognitive Structures • How do cognitive structures help us? – Facilitate processing new information – Add information • Provide knowledge • Enhance meaning • Provide coherence – Save cognitive resources • Simplify information processing – Facilitate comprehension • Consider the following: The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life. Cognitive Structures • How can cognitive structures hurt us? – May limit accuracy. Why? • Guide processing – may not notice relevant information • Knowledge structures – but “knowledge” includes beliefs. If “knowledge” is inaccurate b bias • Don’t always use right concept at right time
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3 Cognitive Structures
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lecture2 - Cognitive Structures Encoding entering...

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