week4 - 10/12/2009 Tuesday, October 13 Psyc 138, Fall 2009...

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10/12/2009 1 Tuesday, October 13 Psyc 138, Fall 2009 Information processing model Stimuli Encoding Elaboration Representation Response Retrieval Cognitive Structures External of Perceiver Internal Processes Encoding Process c Def: The process of entering information from the environment into the cognitive system and assigning basic meaning from it c Guided by cognitive structures c Tends to happen quickly, automatically
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10/12/2009 2 Two elements of encoding c Attention c Entering information into cognitive system c Interpretation c Assigning basic meaning to that information Attention c Perceiver’s environment is rich and complex c Attention must be selective (non-random) c Attention is influenced by properties of both the stimulus and the perceiver c Attention serves a gate-keeping function What factors influence attention? 1. Immediate goals 2. Cognitive structures/expectancies 3. Motives 4. Negative information 5. Stimulus salience 6. Context/situation
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10/12/2009 3 1. Immediate Goals c Hungry? c Attention is directed towards aspects of the environment that facilitate goal fulfillment. 2. Cognitive structures/expectancies c Cohen (1980) c Participants watched video of a woman and her husband in their living room c Playing classical music, wearing glasses, books, drinking beer, affection, bowling ball c IV: Woman’s occupation c Waitress vs. Librarian c DV: Memory for features of video (consistent vs. inconsistent with occupation) Cohen (1980) c Results (% correct): Time of Memory Test features immed. 4 days 7 days consistent .88 .73 .73 inconsistent .78 .68 .66 c Biased attention or biased memory? c
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week4 - 10/12/2009 Tuesday, October 13 Psyc 138, Fall 2009...

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