Unformatted text preview: Lecture 6: Lecture Language Development II: Stages in language acquisition Reminder Stages in language development complex grammar 2 word 1 word babble 9 mo 12 mo 18 mo 36 mo Prior to words: Babbling
• About 8-12 months 8• Speech sounds from native language: • Sounds comprised of consonant followed by vowel: • Deaf infants exposed to sign language babble manually Issue: language and speech Issue:
• Is speech necessary for language? • Test case: • Deaf infants exposed to sign language babble manually Comprehension of language prior to production of first words
• Early word understanding: • Understanding of words (sometimes called receptive vocabulary) often precedes production of receptive production words (expressive vocabulary). • First understood words: Baby’s name. Words for Baby’ familiar individuals (mommy, daddy) (mommy, First Words
• About 12-13 months (but lots of 12variability) – First 50 or so words same everywhere; mostly nouns
– Mom, Dad, siblings, pets, common objects – Very few function words (and, at, the ) (and, • Overextensions – Not evidence of not understanding word, but of limitation in words available “Gavagi” Word learning Word
• How might children learn the meaning of words? • Simple ‘blank slate’ proposal: association between word slate’ and the thing it refers to. Problems with association alone: …too many possible meanings!
category individual part color
Yes, I believe there’s a question at the back? state of mind Solving the ‘gavagai’ problem gavagai’
• Children cannot be blank slates. They must have some initial assumptions about what words are likely to mean. But what assumptions? 1. Whole object assumption – Assume that word is a label for a whole object. Generalize to objects with same overall shape same – Solving the ‘gavagai’ problem (cont) Solving gavagai’
2. Mutual exclusivity assumption: Assume that objects have only ONE label. ONE If child knows name for one object, then a novel name must refer to the other unfamiliar object present. Solving the ‘gavagai’ problem (cont) gavagai’
3. Further cues from syntax (grammar) together with syntax semantics (other known words): semantics “Look there’s a dax” “Look there’s a very dax one” “Look there’s some dax” “Look he’s dax-ing” (in the bowl) Solving the ‘gavagai’ problem (cont) gavagai’
4. Non-verbal cues from knowledgeable speakers: Non- Speakers give other cues to what they intend to be understood from their utterances: • Eye gaze: Toddlers will learn a name for a hidden object based on where a person is looking when they name a word. • Emotional cues: Toddlers can track and remember emotional displays that signal word meaning Two-word stage Two(telegraphic speech)
• 18-24 months: simple 18sentences – Abbreviated (still no function words) • E.g. “Hurt knee” “Daddy sleep” Again, even though infants are not yet producing complex sentences, they are sensitive to syntax (word orderings):
Reminder: ‘Cross modal’ “selective looking” method “Big bird is tickling Cookie Monster” “Cookie Monster is tickling Big Bird” Two-word stage (cont): Two• Even though utterances are short, they preserve the word order used in the language.
e.g. “Eat cookie” not “Cookie eat” cookie” eat” Possible evidence for existence of “core” grammatical core” rules. 3 words and beyond: words
• Moving beyond the 2-word stage is largely a matter of 2incorporating gradually more function words to fill out and arranging words into more complex sentences, using more clauses etc. – “Eat cookie”… to… “I eat-ing cookie-s” … to … cookie”… to… eatcookie… “I am com-ing over there to eat all your cookies” etc. am comto all cookies” • Large individual differences in progression from 2-word state to 2more complex speech. – Note: still consistent with stage development. Next class:
• Conceptual development: understanding other minds ...
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- Fall '08
- Developmental Psychology