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Lecture2 - GEOL 20 Lecture 2 8 Jan 2009 Taking Notes Fast...

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1/8/09 1 GEOL 20, Lecture 2 8 Jan 2009 Taking Notes Fast Pace and Lots of Material Don’t try and keep up during lecture with copious notes Web access to Lecture Notes will be provided Focus more on the general concepts when taking notes, and go back to these later and find them in the Lecture Notes when studying. Text book contains detailed descriptions as well. Computers in Class Lecture OK to use for note taking Not OK for these other things as they distract those around you Tagging last night party photos on facebook Web Surfing Playing Games • Email Please - Turn Your Cell Phone OFF! Review Four primary energy sources fuel Earth processes: Impact of extraterrestrial bodies Asteroids and comets; abundant in early Earth history, rare now Gravity Mass of Earth pulls objects (glaciers, hillsides) downhill Earth’s internal heat As Earth cools, heat flows from interior to surface Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes Plate tectonics; formation of continents, atmosphere and oceans The Sun Evaporation of water into atmosphere produces weather With gravity, powers agents of erosion
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1/8/09 2 Magnitude vs. Frequency Large Catastrophic events are infrequent – Inverse relation between magnitude and frequency Large Catastrophic events have larger recurrence intervals (time between events) – Direct relation between magnitude and recurrence interval. Population and Catastrophes Catastrophes occur… Where people are… Underdeveloped countries … More fatalities, not as much financial loss Developed countries … Larger financial loss, less fatalities More than 1 type of natural disaster operating in a highly populated under-developed region Source: Bilham, 1999 . Solar system began as rotating spherical cloud of gas, ice, dust and debris Gravitational attraction brought particles together into bigger and bigger particles Cloud contracted, rotation sped up and flattened into disk Formation of Sun – Greatest accumulation of matter (H and He) at center of disk – Temperature at center increased to 1 million degrees centigrade Nuclear fusion of hydrogen (H) and helium (He) began, producing solar radiation Solar System Web Animation Formation of planets Rings of concentrated matter formed within disk Particles within rings continued to collide to form planets Inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) lost much gas and liquid to solar radiation, becoming rocky (terrestrial) Outer planets retained gas and liquid, as gas planets Impact Origin of the Moon – Early impact of Mars-sized body with Earth Impact generated massive cloud of dust (from Earth’s crust and mantle) and gas which condensed to form Moon Lightweight gases and liquids lost to space Lesser abundance of iron (from Earth’s core) in Moon Moon Formation Web Animation
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1/8/09 3 Earth began as aggregating mass of particles and gases – Aggregation took 30 to 100 million years
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