Lecture7

Lecture7 - 1 Text Book Reading Chapter 5(finish 6& 7...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Text Book Reading Chapter 5 (finish), 6, & 7 Midterm Exam - Two weeks from today Through Chapter 7 in Text Book Two sided maps for Bonus Assignment are ok Surface buoys measure surface sea height. Pressure sensors on the ocean bottom help determine depth of the water column. P = ρ gh Therefore: h = P/ ρ g • Started near the northern tip of the island of Sumatra • M W = 9.15 EQ ruptured northward for 1100 km, lasting almost 10 minutes! • Killed >273,000 people in Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka… • Tsunami heights up to 24 meters 2 J-P Avouac, Caltech http://staff.aist.go.jp/kenji.satake/ Travel time of tsunami given in hours after initiation. Images © DigitalGlobe http://homepage.mac.com/demark/tsunami Courtesy of Space Imaging and USGS CRSSP 3 • M W = 8.7 EQ • Generated much smaller displacement than the 2004 event. • Wave height at tide gauge for 2004 was 33 cm, for this event it was 25 cm. • 1300 deaths • 01 APR 1946 – Aleutian Islands • Subduction related M W = 8.2 but M s = 7.4 Eqs, M t = 9+ • 42 m run-up height in Alaska • First wave was the biggest in this case. • Larger run-up than 1964 or 1957 Alaskan subduction earthquakes, both with larger magnitudes than the 1946 event Magnitude and origin of Tsunami source still controversial Devastating near-field effects, and far field effects (Hilo, HI) Yet only M7.4 from Gutenberg and Richter (1954) Scotch Cap Lighthouse on Unimak Island, Alaska. A M W = 8.0 EQ generated a tsunami that destroyed the lighthouse, located 9.8 m above sea level. All five occupants were killed. The waves deposited debris as high as 42 m. • 01 APR 1946 • Subduction related M W = 8.0 and M W = 7.3 earthquakes • 42 m run-up height in Alaska • First wave was the biggest in this case. 4 BSSA 2003, E. A. Okal, G. Plafker, C. E. Synolakis, and J. C. Borrero Tsunami from 1946 Aleutian quake striking Hawaii about 3,800km away. East of Hilo waves were 6.1m high. The rise of water was almost 8m in Hilo and as much as 12m in other areas. Tsunami 11m high along Chilean coast. Hit Hawaii ~5 hours later caused 61 fatalities. Struck Japan several hours after that killing hundreds more. Earthquake rupture zone was 850 km long (Distance from San Diego to San Francisco). Coastal areas were raised or submerged by 3m. • 1000 died, mostly from the tsunami • Generated three local tsunami waves: 1. height = 4.5m 2. height = 8m 3. height = 11m • Third wave the largest!...
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Lecture7 - 1 Text Book Reading Chapter 5(finish 6& 7...

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