FINAL STUDY GUIDE - GEOL

FINAL STUDY GUIDE - GEOL - TOPIC 16: The Nature of Matter...

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TOPIC 16: The Nature of Matter I. Summary of Greek Thoughts on the Nature of Matter a. Water, earth, air, and fire are fundamental materials b. Their relative proportions control motion c. Materials are composed of pieces (atoms) d. A void exists e. Materials can be “transmuted” from one material to another f. Stars are made of unchangeable aether II. A View from Ancient Technology a. While the Greek philosophers were arguing about the nature of matter, another group was making equally important observations and using them for society – Metallurgists b. They knew of copper, tin, iron, gold, silver, led, and mercury c. They knew that one could join two different metals (copper and tin) to make a new and stronger material – bronze III. Alchemy (IMPORTANT) a. The alchemists of the Middle Ages (later, Newton was an alchemist), continued studies into fundamental materials b. They tested whether one can transmute one substance into another (as part of a broader religious doctrine), such as lead into gold. c. Contrary to ancient metallurgists, the alchemists did publish their work. It became the basis of modern chemistry (without religion) IV.New Observations in the Renaissance (IMPORTANT) a. All matter has three forms – solid, liquid, and gas (we now add a fourth phase to the list – plasma) b. Heat, light, and fire taken out of the types of matter and given a different term – radiation c. Almost 100 distinct and apparently fundamental materials are known. These can be combined to form new materials, which can, in turn, be broken down into the original constituent materials V. Paradigm Lost? (IMPORTANT) a. Water, earth, air, and fire are fundamental materials i. NO – there are lots of fundamental materials – radiation is different b. Their relative proportions control natural motion i. NO – motion is due to forces c. Materials are composed of pieces (atoms) i. PERHAPS d. A void exists i. YES e. Materials can be “transmuted” from one material to another i. NO – mixtures can be made and then broken up again f. Stars are made of unchangeable aether i. NO – stars and planets are made of changeable materials VI.Periodic Table (IMPORTANT) a. With the categorization of materials came a listing of properties as one way to define them
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b. Mid 19 th C., Mendeleev developed a chart that grouped materials according to their properties i. This is still used today and is known as the Periodic Table of Elements c. Is this a new paradigm? No, but categorization is a key feature in paradigm development VII. Mathematics of Matter a. Without being able to see atoms, scientists could still think about how atoms interacted using Newton’s Laws b. Treat atoms as billiard balls and develop a mathematical method that can deal with large numbers of atom interactions and likelihood that interactions are random. c.
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2009 for the course GEOL 150Lxg taught by Professor Stott during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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FINAL STUDY GUIDE - GEOL - TOPIC 16: The Nature of Matter...

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