Modles of parallel computation_ a survey and classification

Modles of parallel computation_ a survey and classification...

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Front. Comput. Sci. China (2007), 1(2): 156 165 DOI 10.1007/s11704-007-0016-1 Models of parallel computation: a survey and classification ZHANG Yunquan 1,2 , CHEN Guoliang ( ) 3 , SUN Guangzhong 3 , MIAO Qiankun 3 1 Laboratory of Parallel Computing, Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China 2 State Key Laboratory of Computer Science, Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China 3 Anhui Province-MOST Key Co-Lab of High Performance Computing and Its Applications, Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China © Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract In this paper, the state-of-the-art parallel com- putational model research is reviewed. We will introduce various models that were developed during the past decades. According to their targeting architecture features, especially memory organization, we classify these parallel computa- tional models into three generations. These models and their characteristics are discussed based on three generations classification. We believe that with the ever increasing speed gap between the CPU and memory systems, incorporating non-uniform memory hierarchy into computational models will become unavoidable. With the emergence of multi-core CPUs, the parallelism hierarchy of current computing plat- forms becomes more and more complicated. Describing this complicated parallelism hierarchy in future computational models becomes more and more important. A semi- auto- matic toolkit that can extract model parameters and their values on real computers can reduce the model analysis complexity, thus allowing more complicated models with more parameters to be adopted. Hierarchical memory and hierarchical parallelism will be two very important features that should be considered in future model design and re- search. Keywords parallel computational models, hierarchical memory, hierarchical parallelism, three generations, memory model 1 Background The simplified and abstract description of a computer is called a “computational model”. A computer architect, algo- rithm designer and program developer can use such a model as a basis to assess their work including the suitability of one computer architecture to various applications, the com- Received September 26, 2006; accepted November 30, 2006 E-mail:, {glchen, gzsun} putation complexity of an algorithm and the potential per- formance of one program on various computers, etc. A good computational model can simplify the complicated work of the architect, algorithm designer and program developer while mapping their work effectively onto real computers. Thus, such computational model is sometimes also called “Bridging model” [1]. The bridging model between the se- quential computer and algorithm designer/program devel- oper is the Von Neumann and RAM (Random Access Ma- chine) Model [2]. However, no commonly recognized bridging models are found between parallel computer and
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2009 for the course HPC NST105 taught by Professor Hameed during the Spring '09 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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Modles of parallel computation_ a survey and classification...

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